Acceptance of the sense of implementing safe fall programs for people with visual impairments or after amputation of limbs - the perspective of modern adapted physical activity




susceptibility to body injuries during the fall, health-focused training, theory and methodology of safe falls courses


Purpose: The aim of the study was to find out whether safe falling programs for patients with visual impairment or limb amputees, as a prospective modern adapted physical activity, gained acceptance from physiotherapy students and people with disabilities. Material: The study consisted of three stages. The sample included 189 participants. The preset inclusion criterion (adequate attendance during the training) was met by 134 students and all the participants with visual impairment (n = 6) and after limb amputation (n = 8). Results: The opinions that implementation of STSFT programs for patients with visual impairment or after limb amputation, expressed by physiotherapy students (about 94% and 95% of students at stages I and II respectively) and patients with disabilities (100% of amputees and 83% of patients with visual impairment at stage III), who learned to protect their bodies during collisions with the ground, indicate that the aforementioned empirically verified programs are effective. Conclusions: 1. Implementation of safe falling programs as an adapted physical activity for patients with visual impairment or after limb amputation may adversely affect their feeling of safety and motivation for practicing sports, tourism or other physical activities. 2. Physiotherapy students specializing in safe falling will contribute to a growing number of new workplaces and innovative services, both for able-bodied people and people with disabilities. Such a specialty will be essential for public health including improvement of the patient’s quality of life.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

B. Gąsienica Walczak, Podhale State College of Applied Sciences in Nowy Targ; Nowy Targ, Poland


1. WHO. Falls. [Internet]. 2019. [updated 2019; cited 2019 Nov 13]. Available from:

2. Yoshida S. A Global Report on Falls Prevention: Epidemiology of Falls. Geneva: WHO; 2007.

3. Guideline for the prevention of falls in older persons. American Geriatrics Society, British Geriatrics Society, and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Panel on Falls Prevention. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;49(5):664– 72.

4. Jaskólski E, Nowacki Z. Theory, methodology and systematics of soft incidence. Part I. The theory of soft incidence. Wrocław: WSWF; 1972. (In Polish)

5. Kalina RM, Barczyński BJ, Jagiełło W, Kruszewski A, Przeździecki B, Harasymowicz J, Syska J, Szamotulska K. Teaching of safe falling as most effective element of personal injury prevention in people regardless of gender, age and type of body build – the use of advanced information technologies to monitor the effects of education. Arch Budo, 2008; 4: 82–90.

6. Kalina RM, Barczyński BJ, Klukowski K, Langfort J, Gąsienica-Walczak B. The method to evaluate the susceptibility to injuries during the fall – validation procedure of the specific motor test. Arch Budo, 2011;7(4): 203–216.

7. Kalina A, Kalina RM, Klukowski K. Collision avoidance exercises and safe fall for rehabilitation purposes. Wychowanie Fizyczne i Zdrowotne, 1998; 1: 20–26. (In Polish)

8. Kalina RM, Kruszewski A, Jagiełło W, Włoch G. Introduction to martial arts – basics of judo. Warsaw: AWF Warsaw publisher; 2003. (In Polish)

9. Kalina RM, Barczyński BJ. EKO-AGRO-FITNESS© original author’s continuous program of health-oriented and ecological education in the family, among friends or individually implemented – the premises and assumptions. Arch Budo, 2010; 6(4): 178–184.

10. Jagiełło W, Kalina RM, Klimczak J. Fun forms of martial arts in positive enhancement of all dimensions of health and survival abilities. In: Kalina RM, editor. Proceedings of the 1st World Congress on Health and Martial Arts in Interdisciplinary Approach, HMA 2015, 17–19 September 2015, Czestochowa, Poland. Warsaw: Archives of Budo; 2015. P.32–39.

11. Gąsienica-Walczak B. Motor, methodical and mental qualifications of physiotherapy students in the field of safe falling - the perspective of preventing falls of persons with visual impairments, with immobilized or amputated limb. [Doctoral dissertation]. Rzeszow: University of Rzeszow; 2018. (In Polish)

12. Wolf SJ, Kutner NG, Green RC, McNeely E. The Atlanta FICSIT Study. Two Exercise Interventions to Reduce Frailtv in Elders. JAGS 1993; 41.329– 332.

13. Tinetti ME, Baker DI, McAvay G, Claus EB, Garret P, Gottschalk M, Koch ML, Trainor K, Horwitz RI. A multifactorial intervention to reduce the risk of falling among elderly older people living in the community. N. Engl. J. Med. 1994; 331(13): 821– 827.

14. Sattin RW, Rodriguez JG, DeVito CA, Wingo PA. Study to Assess Falls Among the Elderly (SAFE) Group. Home Environmental Hazards and the Risk of Fall Injury Events Among Community-Dwelling Older Persons. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 1998;46:669–76.

15. Roberson MC, Campbell AJ, Gardner MM, Devlin N. The effectiveness of a community-based program for reducting the incidence of falls in the elderly. a randomized trial. J Am. Geriatr. Soc. 2002; 50: 905–911.

16. Clemson L, Cumming RG, Kendig H, Swann M, Heard R, Taylor K. The effectiveness of a community-based program for reducing the incidence of falls in the elderly. A randomized trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004; 52(9):1487– 94.

17. Skelton D, Dinan S, Campbell M, Rutherford O. Tailored group exercise (Falls Management Exercise—FaME) reduces falls in community-dwelling older frequent fallers (an RCT). Age Ageing. 2005; 34(6):636– 39.

18. Shier V, Trieu E, Ganz DA. Implementing exercise programs to prevent falls. systematic descriptive review. Injury Epidemiology, 2016; 3: 16.

19. Hill KD, Suttanon P, Lin SI, Tsang WWN, Ashari A, Hamid TAA, Farrier K, Burton E. What works in falls prevention in Asia. a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Geriatrics, 2018; 18: 3.

20. Dobosz D, Barczyński BJ, Kalina A, Kalina RM. The most effective and economic method of reducing death and disability associated with falls. Arch Budo, 2018; 14:239–246.

21. Rauk-Kubacka A, Kubacki R, Maśliński, J, Harmaciński D, Migasiewicz J, Piepiora P. Swiss ball as a tool supporting the learning of safe smashing (ukemi) and shaping the balance of the body for trainers, sport instructors and Physical Education teachers. Arch Budo Sci Martial Art Extreme Sport, 2018; 14.

22. Toronjo-Hornillo L, DelCastillo-Andrés Ó, Campos-Mesa MDC, Díaz Bernier VM, Zagalaz Sánchez ML. Effect of the Safe Fall Programme on Children’s Health and Safety. Dealing Proactively with Backward Falls in Physical Education Classes. Sustainability, 2018; 10: 1168.

23. Kalina RM. Martial arts and self-defense training in youth defense education. Warsaw: Polish Scientific Society of Physical Culture; 1997. (In Polish)

24. Syska J, Bógdał D. The relationship between safe fall skills and comprehensive physical fitness. In: Dąbrowski A, Jasiński T, Kalina RM. Fight sports in education of children and youth - methodological perspective. Plock: College of Paweł Włodkowic; 2002. (In Polish)

25. Kalina RM, Kalina A. Theorietical and methodological aspects of teaching lower extremity amputees safe falling. Advances in Rehabilitation, 2003; 17: 71–87.

26. Kalina RM. Jagiełło W. Wiktorek P. Motor Competence in Self-Defence of Students of a Detectives’ School during Their Course of Studies. Arch Budo, 2007; 3: 1–6.

27. Kalina R. Teaching how to fall safely. Przegląd Wojsk Lądowych, 1976; 5: 77–81. (In Polish)

28. Kalina RM. Multidimensional tests as a fundamental diagnostic tool in the prophylactic and therapeutic agonology – the methodological basis of personal safety (Part II. motor and psychomotor multidimensional tests). Arch Budo Sci Martial Art Extreme Sport, 2018; 14: 1–14.

29. Żiżka-Salamon D, Gąsienica-Walczak B. Acceptance and Areas of Involvement of Students of Tourism and Recreation in EKO- AGRO-FITNESS© Programme. Arch Budo, 2011; 7(2): 10–16.

30. Mroczkowski A. Motor safety of a man during a fall. Arch Budo, 2015; 11: 293–303.

31. IFAPA. International Federation of Adapted Physical Activity, IFAPA’s By-Laws. [Internet]. 2004. [updated 2019; cited 2019 Nov 13]. Available from: http.//www.ifapa/imgs/uploads/PDF/IFAPA%20By-Laws.pdf

32. Morgulec-Adamowicz N, Kosmol A, Molik B. Adapted physical activity for physiotherapists. Warsaw: PZWL Medical Publishing House; 2014. (In Polish)

33. Kalina RM. Innovative agonology as a synonym for prophylactic and therapeutic agonology – the final impulse. Arch Budo, 2016; 12: 329–344.

34. Krzemieniecki LA, Moska W. Combat issues in literary works of Nobel Laureates for Literature an interdisciplinary perspective of martial arts bibliotherapy. Arch Budo, 2016; 12: 345–352.

35. Kalina RM, Barczyński BJ. Mixed assessments as mental and pedagogic basis of innovative self-defence. Arch Budo, 2017; 13: 187–194.

36. Mosler D, Kalina RM. Possibilities and limitations of judo (selected martial arts) and innovative agonology in the therapy of people with mental disorders and also in widely understood public health prophylaxis. Arch Budo, 2017; 13: 211–226.

37. Klimczak J, Kalina RM. Placebo effect – the perspective of diagnosis and therapy of aggressiveness by using fun forms of martial arts during innovative agonology cognitive-behavioural sessions (case study). Arch Budo, 2019; 15: 57–66.

38. Gąsienica Walczak B, Barczyński BJ, Kalina RM. Evidence-based monitoring of the stimuli and effects of prophylaxis and kinesiotherapy based on the exercises of safe falling and avoiding collisions as a condition for optimising the prevention of body injuries in a universal sense – people with eye diseases as an example of an increased risk group. Arch Budo, 2018; 14. 10–16.

39. Molik B, Marszałek J. The specificity of injuries in Paralympics sport. Advances in Rehabilitation, 2013;27.36–41.

40. Ferrara MS, Peterson CL. Injuries to Athletes With Disabilities. Identifying to Injury Patterns. Sport Med. 2000;30(2):137–43.

41. Derman W, Runciman P, Jordaan E, Schwellnus M, Blauwet Ch, Webborn N et al. High incidence of injuries at the Pyeongchang 2018 Paralympic Winter Games. A prospective cohort study of 6804 athlete days. Br J Sports Med, 2019;0.1–6.

42. Jagiełło W, Kalina RM, Tkaczuk W. Age peculiarities of speed and endurance development in young judo athletes. Biol Sport, 2001; 18(4): 281–295.

43. Jagiełło W, Kalina RM, Tkaczuk W. Development of strength abilities in children and youth. Biol Sport, 2004; 21(4): 351–368.

44. Maśliński J, Witkowski K, Jatowtt A et al. Physical fitness 11-12 years boys who train judo and those who do not practise sport. Arch Budo Sci Martial Art Extreme Sport, 2015; 11: 41–46.

45. Celik NM, Beyleroglu M, Soyal M, Ciris V. The effect of liquid losses in trainings during competition period on some biochemical values of u18 male judokas ( age 15-17). Physical education of students, 2017;21(5):249–54.

46. Kamitani T, Nimura Y, Nagahiro S, Miyazaki S, Tomatsu T. Catastrophic Head and Neck Injuries in Judo Players in Japan From 2003 to 2010. Am J Sports Med, 2013;41:1915–21.

47. Pocecco E, Ruedl G, Stankovic N, Sterkowicz S, Del Vecchio FB, Gutiérrez-García C, et al. Injuries in judo: a systematic literature review including suggestions for prevention. Br J Sports Med, 2013;47:1139–43.




How to Cite

Gąsienica Walczak B. Acceptance of the sense of implementing safe fall programs for people with visual impairments or after amputation of limbs - the perspective of modern adapted physical activity. Physical Education of Students. 2019;23(6):288-96.

Abstract views: 489 / PDF downloads: 375