Physical education of students <table border="0" width="100%" cellpadding="5"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <h3 id="1">SPECIAL ISSUE</h3> <strong>The Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Physical Activity in University Students</strong> <br> (The authors can use questionnaires) <br> <em>Physical Education of Students,</em> <br>2021, 25 <a href="/index.php/PES/pages/view/next#1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">(Special issue)</a></td> <td width="10">&nbsp;</td> <td width="50%"> <p style="background: #D2E4FA; width: 170px; border-radius: 5px 5px 5px 5px; text-align: center; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; color: #ffffff;"><a href="/index.php/PES/user/register" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Make a Submission</strong></a></p> If your manuscript and figures are ready to submit according to the <a href="/index.php/PES/pages/view/trebovaniya-e" target="_blank" rel="noopener">manuscript formatting guidelines and requirements</a>, please proceed directly to the <a href="/index.php/PES/user/register" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ONLINE SUBMISSION SYSTEM</a> [Article Processing Charges (APC) <a href="/index.php/PES/pages/view/trebovaniya-e#25" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Information</a>]</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <hr noshade="noshade" size="1" width="100%"> <p>Journal "Physical Education of Students" (Abbreviated key-title: Phys. educ. stud. <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">e-ISSN 2308-7250</a>). <br> The previous title <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">"Fiziceskoe Vospitanie Studentov (Physical Education of Students)"</a> p-ISSN 2075-5279; e-ISSN 2223-2125 (01.07.2009 - 31.12.2012). <br> The previous title <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">"Fiziceskoe Vospitanie Studentov Tvorcheskikh Special'nostej (Physical education ot students of creative profession)"</a> ISSN 1993-4335 (30.11.1996 - 30.06.2009). <br><br> Journal is published 6 times per year (bimonthly: February, April, June, August, October, December). <br><br> Journal is ratified Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine (online):<br> physical education and sport (11.07.2019, № 975, “A” - 24.00.01, 24.00.02, 24.00.03; 017); (13.03.2017, № 374); pedagogical sciences (07.05.2019, № 612, “A” - 13.00.02; 011, 014); (22.12.2016, № 1604). <br> <br> All articles have <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOI (digital object identifier)</a> <br><br> All authors have <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ORCID</a> <br><br> INDEXING: Web of Science Core Collection (ESCI); DOAJ; <a href="/index.php/PES/pages/view/Indexing" target="_blank" rel="noopener">See more ►</a> <br><br> <a href="/index.php/PES/issue/current" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/images/FVS-e.jpg" alt="cover" width="218" height="312" align="left"></a> <br><br></p> <p><br> <a href=""><img src="" alt="Flag Counter" border="0"></a></p> <hr noshade="noshade" size="1" width="100%"> Iermakov Sergii Sidorovich en-US Physical education of students 2075-5279 <p>Copyright Holder - Author(s). <a href="/index.php/PES/about#10"> more</a></p> Sex-and sport related differences in the personality traits students in volleyball, basketball and judo athletes <p><em>Background and Study Aim. </em>&nbsp;Psychology is a very important field of knowledge in every area of human life, and personality and temperament have a large impact on the quality of human life, including mental and physical health, and indirectly on the results achieved in elite sport. The purpose of the study was to verify the assumption that there are differences in the psychological profile of professional sportsman students depending on the gender and type of sports discipline.</p> <p><em>Material and methods.</em> The research covered athletes of both sexes belonging to academic sports clubs practicing volleyball, basketball and judo. The size of each of the six groups was 24 people. Standardized psychological tests were used to determine the levels of selected personality and temperamental traits: trait anxiety, neuroticism, extraversion, briskness, perseveration, sensory sensitivity, emotional reactivity, endurance, activity, and six components of aggressiveness: physical aggressiveness, verbal aggressiveness, indirect aggressiveness, negativism, suspiciousness, resentment, irritability, overall and guilty sense. Two-way analysis of variance (sex * sport) was used to assess the differences between the groups.</p> <p><em>Results.</em> Women showed higher trait anxiety, extraversion, perseveration, emotional reactivity results and lower physical aggressiveness levels compared to men. Basketball practitioners had the lowest levels of aggressiveness components, and the highest levels of briskness.</p> <p><em>Conclusions.</em> The results suggest that the psychological profile of women participating in competitive sports may account for a higher emotional cost than men in terms of competition and failure. This fact should be taken into account by the coaches of female sports teams. The differences between sports may be due to the different structure of the task.</p> Zbigniew Obminski Helena Mroczkowska Marina Jagiello Artur Litwiniuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 24 6 304 311 10.15561/20755279.2020.0601 Effect of training on the development of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia in volleyball players <p><em>Background and Study Aim.</em> The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of volleyball training on the development of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia during incremental exercise in male competitive volleyball players.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods. </em>&nbsp;Eight male amateur volleyball players (age 21±1.3 years) participated in a 6-week volleyball training program three times a week in the pre-season preparatory period. Before and after the training period, all players performed an incremental treadmill test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO<sub>2max</sub>), and oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO<sub>2</sub>) was continuously measured using a pulse oximeter during the test. Maximal values of minute ventilation (VE<sub>max</sub>), respiratory exchange ratio (RER<sub>max</sub>), ventilatory equivalent for oxygen (VE/VO<sub>2</sub>) and carbon dioxide (VE/VCO<sub>2</sub>) were determined. Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) was defined as a SaO<sub>2</sub> decreased by at least 4% (ΔSaO<sub>2</sub>≤ −4%) from resting level.</p> <p><em>Results.</em>&nbsp;All the players exhibited exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia before (ΔSaO<sub>2</sub>= –8.8±3.3%) and after (ΔSaO<sub>2</sub>= –8.31.5%) the training period. SaO<sub>2</sub> was significantly decreased from 97.6±1% at rest to 88.7±2.7% at exhaustion before the training period, and from 97.2±1.1% at rest to 88.8±2.1% at exhaustion after training period (p &lt; 0.001). There was no significant difference in resting and lowest SaO<sub>2</sub> values by comparison between the before and after training (p &gt; 0.05). There were no significant changes in VO<sub>2max</sub>, VE<sub>max</sub>, RER<sub>max</sub>, VE/VO<sub>2</sub> and VE/VCO<sub>2</sub> after training period (p &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><em>Conclusions.</em>&nbsp;The results of this study showed that volleyball players with a history of anaerobic training may exhibit EIAH, but that 6-week volleyball training has no effect on the degree of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia.</p> Selcen Korkmaz Eryılmaz Kerimhan Kaynak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 24 6 312 318 10.15561/20755279.2020.0602 Effect of positive and negative dimensions of mental imagery and self-talk on learning of soccer kicking skill <p><em>Background and Study Aim</em>. Mental imagery and self-talk are two important mental skills that are used for improvement of performance and learning of motor and sport skills. This study aimed to investigate the effect of positive/negative mental imagery and positive/negative self-talk on learning of soccer kicking skill.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods</em>. Participants included 48 young soccer player students. Participants were soccer player students with mean age 18.44 and SD=.88 years. After selecting the sample and filling out the personal detail form, the imagery and self-talk instructions, the method of completing mental imagery questionnaire, Moore-Christine kick-skill test instructions, and principles of free kick at soccer were explained to participants. Then, the mental imagery test and kick-skill test were run in 4 blocks of 4 attempts and the results were recorded. Based on their pre-test scores, the participants were divided into 4 groups. The acquisition sessions were held for 3 weeks and 2 sessions per week, with 8 blocks of 4 trials (32 trials) per session. The data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA, mixed ANOVA, and two-way ANOVA tests at different learning stages (significance level= 0.05).</p> <p><em>Results.</em> The results of data analysis showed that positive imagery and positive self-talk groups performed significantly better than negative imagery and negative self-talk groups. Also, due to the significance of interactive effect of imagery × training sessions, it was found that the positive imagery groups performed significantly better than negative imagery groups from the third session onwards.</p> <p><em>Conclusion.</em> According to the results, it was recommended that trainers use this aspect of self-talk at early stages of training. Also, the positive imagery can be emphasized by increasing the training sessions in more skilled individual.</p> Gholamreza Lotfi Farshid Tahmasbi Mohammad Hossein Forghani Andrzej Szwarc ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 24 6 319 324 10.15561/20755279.2020.0603 The effect of acute exercise on cognition <p><em>Background and Study Aim.</em> Several lines of evidence indicate that physical activity has a positive impact on central nervous system. The positive impact is observed in areas of brain related to cognitive processes such as memory, learning and attention. The majority of studies focused on the chronic effects of exercise. Relatively limited number of reports addresses the problem of influence of acute exercise (single bouts of exercise) on cognitive functions.</p> <p><em>Material and methods.</em> We examined the influence of a single bout of exercise on cognitive performance of young volunteers (23 males; aged 20,91 ± 1,01). To evaluate the cognitive performance in our subjects we used Face/Name Association Test, Stroop Test and Trail Making Test. Volunteers run for 30 minute at moderate –intensity.</p> <p><em>Results.</em> The mean results in the Face/Name Association Test before acute exercise were 63,52 ± 5,65% and after acute exercise 67,34 ± 5,82% (p&lt;0,005). Statistically differences results were also observed in duration of the retrieval phase of this test (p&lt;0,005). In the Trial Making Test, in part A mean results before acute exercise were 66,26 ±11,24 seconds and after physical training 52,39 ± 11,10 seconds (p&lt;0,005). In part B mean results were 80,60 ± 22,52 and 70,47 ± 14,54 seconds before and after acute exercise, respectively (p&lt;0,05). We have not observed statistical difference in results of the Stroop Test.</p> <p><em>Conclusions.</em> Our data suggest that a single bout of exercise can influence the level of cognitive performance. We demonstrate improvement in cognitive function depending on hippocampus (short-term memory) and prefrontal cortex (attention, cognitive flexibility). We have not observed influence of acute exercise on Stroop test (executive function) results.</p> Blanka Dwojaczny Sergii Iermakov Tatiana Yermakova Mirosława Cieślicka ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 24 6 325 331 10.15561/20755279.2020.0604 Influence of static balances level on competitive performance indicators of athletes 17-21 years old in beach volleyball <p><em>Background and Study Aim.</em> To determine the influence of the level of static balance on the competitive activity of athletes aged 17-21 in beach volleyball.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods.</em> The study involved athletes aged 17-21 years, who play beach volleyball in the Kherson region. The research was focused on the main indicators: the total number of serves, passes, tactical strikes, blocks, and how the development of static balance affects the level of their performance.</p> <p><em>Results.</em> Acrobatic exercises in training activities for special physical training positively contributed to the increase in the samples of Bondarevsky (p &lt;0.05), Romberg (p &lt;0.05) and Yarotsky (p &lt;0.05). Samples with different nature of the work performed reflect different aspects of static equilibrium: samples of Bondarevsky and Yarotsky most reflect the nature of the work performed during the competitive activities of athletes; Romberg's test only partially corresponds to these indicators.</p> <p><em>Conclusions. </em>The proposed methodological approach significantly affects the performance of competitive activities and is directly related to the quality of tactical strikes, high-level performance in defense and the number of serves. The results of the study indicate the difference in samples with different nature of the work. Overstrain of the vestibular centers can negatively affect the quality of tactical strikes in the attack and blocking.</p> Olexandr Solovey Valeriy Hunchenko Dmytro Solovey Krzysztof Wnorowski ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 24 6 332 339 10.15561/20755279.2020.0605 Examination of lower-upper limb of power and force parameters of elite athletes <p><em>Background and Study Aim.</em> In this study, it is aimed to evaluate the power and force parameters of lower and upper extremities of the individual and team athletes who practice different branches.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods.</em> 32 elite athletes, most of whom are university students, with an average age of 21.16 ± 2.08, who are active in sports, participated in the study. The groups were formed from Boxing and Handball (BG and HG) branches in which the upper extremities are used predominantly and from Taekwondo and Football (TG and FG) branches in which the lower extremities are used predominantly. The anaerobic power values of each individual’s upper and lower extremities were measured by a Monark 894E. The isokinetic force values of dominant arms and legs were measured by a Cybex humac norm device.</p> <p><em>Results. </em>After examination of the data it was found that the upper extremity power values of BG and HG were significantly higher than TG when the top values of peak powers (PP) were evaluated.&nbsp; In the evaluations with respect to leg 60°/s and 180°/s extension and flexion; HG and FG was significantly higher than TG in 60°/s extension at PP; HG and FG were significantly indifferent but they were significantly higher than BG and TG in 60°/s flexion at PP. In the comparisons of the groups’ 60°/s and 180°/s extension and flexion values of lower extremities anaerobic power and isokinetic force and lower extremities’ wingate values, a number of positive relations were found between all of the groups. All of the groups were positively related to each other in terms of upper extremities wingate and 60°/s, 180°/s internal and external isokinetic forces.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Conclusions.</em> Both the isokinetic arm force values and arm wingate levels were higher in the branches in which the upper extremities are used predominantly than the branches in which the lower extremities are used predominantly. On the other hand, the difference seen in the upper extremities was not seen in the lower extremities.</p> Samet Aktaş Oktay Çakmakçı ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 24 6 340 347 10.15561/20755279.2020.0606