Physical education of students <p style="background: #D2E4FA; width: 170px; border-radius: 5px 5px 5px 5px; text-align: center; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; color: #ffffff;"><a href="/index.php/PES/user/register" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Make a Submission</strong></a></p> <p>If your manuscript and figures are ready to submit according to the <a href="/index.php/PES/pages/view/trebovaniya-e" target="_blank" rel="noopener">manuscript formatting guidelines and requirements</a>, please proceed directly to the <a href="/index.php/PES/user/register" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ONLINE SUBMISSION SYSTEM</a> (manuscript processing <a href="/index.php/PES/pages/view/trebovaniya-e#25" target="_blank" rel="noopener">fees</a>). <br><br> Journal is published 6 times per year (bimonthly: February, April, June, August, October, December). <br><br> Journal is ratified Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine (online):<br> physical education and sport (11.07.2019, № 975, “A” - 24.00.01, 24.00.02, 24.00.03; 017); (13.03.2017, № 374); pedagogical sciences (07.05.2019, № 612, “A” - 13.00.02; 011, 014); (22.12.2016, № 1604). <br> <br> All articles have <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOI (digital object identifier)</a><br> <br> All authors have <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ORCID</a><br> <br> INDEXING: Web of Science Core Collection (ESCI); DOAJ; <a href="/index.php/PES/pages/view/Indexing" target="_blank" rel="noopener">See more ►</a> <br> <br> <a href="/index.php/PES/issue/current" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/images/FVS-e.jpg" alt="cover" width="218" height="312" align="left"></a></p> <p><br> <a href=""><img src="" alt="Flag Counter" border="0"></a></p> <hr noshade="noshade" size="1" width="700"> <p>&nbsp;</p> Iermakov Sergii Sidorovich en-US Physical education of students 2075-5279 <p>Copyright Holder - Author(s). <a href="/index.php/PES/about#10"> more</a></p> Four-week of local electromyostimulaiton training on fingerboard increases the isokinetic wrist strength and endurance <p><em>Background and Study Aim:</em> Electromyostimulaiton (EMS) has been used for both physical therapy and strength improvements for a few decades. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a four-week local-EMS training performed on a fingerboard (FT) in wrist strength and endurance.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods:</em> &nbsp;Sixteen physically active, non-climber students were divided into EMS+FT and FT groups. Each group performed the same training program about 25 min a day, 3 days a week for four weeks. The EMS+FT implementation was performed with a signal width of 260 ms and a frequency of 60 Hz. Before and after training, isokinetic measurements were collected. The parameters used in the research during flexion and extension at 60 and 180°/sec were; Peak Torque (PT), Peak Torque/Body Weight (PT/BW), and Average Power (AP).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The EMS+FT group showed statistically significant alterations in all of the parameters (p&lt;0.01 and p&lt;0.05) except in the left wrist AP during flexion and extension at 180°/sec. However, the FT group showed significant changes in only wright wrist AP during extension at 60°/sec, and wright and left wrist AP during flexion at 180°/sec, and left wrist PT during extension at 180°/sec.</p> <p><em>Conclusions:</em> Accordingly, it could be inferred that FT done by using EMS for four weeks improve the isokinetic wrist strength and endurance significantly. Muscular fitness has an essential role in climbing performance, and this study points that EMS trainings on fingerboard could be used to enhance the climbing performance.</p> Dicle Aras Selçuk Gül Fırat Akça Mehmet Gülü Özkan Güler Cemil C. Bıldırcın Erşan Arslan Güney Çetinkaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 24 3 127 134 10.15561/20755279.2020.0301 Declared and actual students’ physical activity <p><em>Background and Study Aim.</em> Regular and reasonable physical activity seems to be one of the most recommended health-promoting human behaviours. The aim of the work was to determine the relationship between the declared and actual level of students' physical activity.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods.</em> 118 students from the faculty of physical education aged 22.62±1.93 years participated in the study (61 men aged 23.12±1.78 years and 57 women aged 22.08±1.39 years).&nbsp;To determine the level of physical activity, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the three-axis ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer were used in order to record physical activity parameters and the amount of energy expenditure.</p> <p><em>Results.</em> The largest absolute difference without gender division was found in the average duration of physical activity in the medium intensity zone (16.83%). Differences in the level of weekly level of physical activity were noted in the whole group (13.79%; p&lt;0.01) as well as in the group of women (relative difference 18.07%, p&lt;0.01) and in the group of men (9.74%, p&lt;0.01). A high correlation was observed between weekly energy expenditure calculated on the basis of declared values and the actual energy expenditure (r=0.94; p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><em>Conclusions.</em> Research carried out as part of the study showed that students declare a higher level of physical activity compared to the actual performed activity. On this basis, it can be concluded that there is a risk of error in assessing the volume of physical activity in a survey. The study showed significant gender diversity in the frequency and duration of physical activity undertaken by the respondents.</p> Cholewa Cholewa Miłosz Witkowski Jacek Wąsik Tomasz Góra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 24 3 135 140 10.15561/20755279.2020.0302 A study on the determination of handgrip strength of Olympic style weightlifting athletes <p><em>Background and Study Aim:</em> Handgrip strength is widely accepted as a functionality parameter to assess upper extremity performance. The measurement of hand grip strength by dynamometry is a low cost, non-invasive method of simple applicability. The present study is based on the association of dominant and non-dominant handgrip strength with demographic and anthropometric characteristics; height, body weight, body mass index, upper arm length, forearm length, hand length, forearm circumference, upper arm circumference.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods:</em> The study included 70 male athletes in olympic style weightlifting (age: 18.06±2.18, height:1.74±.06 m, body weight: 76.09±13.04 kg). A total of 70 sedentary individuals as a control group (age 18.11±.18, height:1.75±.04 m, body weight: 74.01±13.94 kg) were also taken to compare study findings. The data obtained was analyzed by SPPS for Windows, version 25. Handgrip strength measurements were obtained by a Jamar dynamometer, according to the recommendations of the American Association of Hand Therapists.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> It was found that the values of dominant and non-dominant handgrip strength, upper arm circumference and forearm circumference length of the weightlifting athletes were higher than those of sedentary individuals (p&lt;.001). No asymmetry was observed in dominant and non-dominant handgrip strength values of the athletes and sedentary individuals. The correlations were noted between dominant and non-dominant handgrip strength values of weightlifting athletes and demographic characteristics, some anthropometric characteristics of upper extremity and weightlifting performance.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> The variability of handgrip strength might largely be explained by some anthropometric characteristics of upper extremity.</p> Kenan Erdağı Osman Tüfekçi Mustafa Yeşeri Mehmet F. Yüksel Nimet Turgut Burak E. Eroğlu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 24 3 141 148 10.15561/20755279.2020.0303 Effect of different training modes of strength exercises on a student’s body <p><em>Background and Study Aim.</em> Scientific-methodical literature underlined the importance of improving the effectiveness of physical education’s tools and methods during the scheduled university lessons. Scientists point out the necessity to take into account every factor determining the training effect of lessons with strength exercises. The immediate training effect can be determined by measuring the heart rate during different modes of strength exercises and during recovery. The aim of this study is to analyse the strength exercises’ immediate training effect on a student’s body in the static mode and in the isotonic mode.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods. </em><em>&nbsp;</em>In the study participated 47 freshman male students of the Sochi State University (Russia). The study took place in September-December 2019. Heart rate was measured with Sport Testers POLAR RS-400 during strength exercises and during recovery. The results were analysed in the computer programme SPSS Statistics v22.0. Statistical significance of the results was defined using non-parametric Wilcoxon test. Heart rate was analysed during four types of plank positions in static and isotonic modes.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>The study determined the effect of different training modes of strength exercises on a student’s body. The immediate training effect of doing the bodyweight strength exercises in the isotonic mode compared to the static mode is characterised by a higher maximum heart rate at the end of doing the exercise (р&lt;0,05); a higher average heart rate during the exercise and during rest until the next exercise (р&lt;0,05); a higher combined heart rate (р&lt;0,05).</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>The isotonic mode of the bodyweight strength exercises has a more prominent training effect than the static mode due to the specific nature of muscle contractions. Due to analysed heart rate values, the authors recommend taking into account the individual level of every student’s physical fitness.</p> Alexander A. Fedyakin Zhanna G. Kortava Lidia K. Fedyakina Natalia Yu. Zaplatina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 24 3 149 153 10.15561/20755279.2020.0304 The study of functional asymmetry in students and schoolchildren practicing martial arts <p><em>Background and Study Aim. </em>The study of functional asymmetry in students and schoolchildren practicing martial arts using a computer test.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods. </em>The study involved students and schoolchildren (n = 38) practicing the martial arts (taekwondo, karate). Participants were divided into groups according to the sports’ skill level. The first group included experienced athletes (n = 15, age – 19.00 ± 0.45 years). The second group included beginners (n = 23, age - 9.78 ± 0.65 years). The functional asymmetry was determined using «Reaction SM Dual» software for tablets with iOS. Two visual tests were used. The duration of each test was 100 s. Each test was divided into 5 stages. Each stage lasts 20 s. The first test (simple reaction) – the participant pushes against the circles on the screen with two hands. The second test (differentiated reaction) – the participant pushes against the circles of the same color (out of five possible) on the screen. The following indicators were determined: the number of pushes with the right and left hand (abs); reaction time with the right and left hand (s); duration of pushes with the right and left hand (ms). It was estimated the following indicators: total number of pushes; average reaction time; average duration of pushes. Results are estimated using parametric and nonparametric statistical indicators.</p> <p><em>Results. </em>The number of pushes in the test, the reaction rate, and the duration of pushes were significantly higher in experienced athletes. It was determined the asymmetry due to the lower duration of pushes with the right hand compared to the left hand in beginners. The asymmetry was not confirmed in experienced athletes. The reaction rate for the left hand significantly increased compared to stage 1 in beginners: at stage 2 (t = -2.41), at stage 3 (t = -2.23), at stage 4 (t = -2.30) and at stage 5 (t = -2.68). This dependency was less expressed for the right hand. It was confirmed the increase of the reaction rate in comparison with stage 1: at stage 3 (t = -2.39), at stage 4 (t = -2.00) and at stage 5 (t = -2.32). The differences in the dynamics of the test were more expressed in experienced athletes. It was determined the decrease in the number of pushes compared to stage 1: stage 2 (t = 2.53), stage 4 (t = 2.89) and stage 5 (t = 2.61). For the right hand, this pattern was more expressed. The decrease in the number of pushes was determined compared with stage 1: stage 2 (t = 2.17), stage 3 (t = 2.07), stage 4 (t = 2.39) and stage 5 (t = 2.94). Experienced athletes have confirmed significant changes in the reaction rate with their left hand compared to stage 1: stage 4 (t = -2.33) and stage 5 (t = -2.06). For the right hand, this pattern was confirmed only for the final stage of the test (t = -2.35).</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>. It was confirmed the legitimacy of using a special computer test to study functional asymmetry in students and schoolchildren practicing martial arts. The test division into several stages can significantly increase the information content of the results. The applied battery of indicators provides the necessary information for the analysis of asymmetry. It was determined the best functional condition of experienced athletes compared to beginners. Experienced athletes demonstrate the best ability to mobilize and concentrate on extreme conditions. The dynamics of the test also confirms the asymmetry in athletes with less training experience. Performing a test with a differentiated stimulus confirmed the revealed patterns. The lack of asymmetry in experienced athletes confirms optimal training tactics. The asymmetry in beginners stipulates the correction of training. Used computer test can be recommended for martial arts athletes’ condition monitoring.</p> Vyacheslav V. Romanenko Olha O. Podrihalo Leonid V. Podrigalo Sergii S. Iermakov Zhanna V. Sotnikova-Meleshkina Oksana V. Bobrova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 24 3 154 161 10.15561/20755279.2020.0305 Effects of a periodized functional strength training program (FST) on Functional Movement Screen (FMS) in physical education students <p><em>Background and Study Aim: </em>To examine the effects of periodized functional strength training (FST) on FMS scores of sport university students with higher risk of injury.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods:</em> Thirty three &nbsp;participants (age 21.6±1.3 years, height 177.8±6.9 m, mass 80.4±7.7 kg) with FMS total score ≤ 14 were selected from eighty two volunteered students of University of Physical Education and Sport in Gdańsk and randomly assigned to experimental group (n=16) and control group (n=17). The FMS test was conducted one week before and one week after the 12 week training intervention. The experimental group participated in FST program through 12 weeks. The control group did not engaged in any additional physical activity than planned in their course of study. The&nbsp; collected&nbsp; data&nbsp; were&nbsp; analysed&nbsp; using Statistica 13.3 pl (StatSoft Inc). Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to establish the statistical significance of the difference between FMS total scores within each group and Mann Whitney U test between groups before and after the 12 week training intervention.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> 45 % of volunteers in the first FMS testing showed total scores ≤14. The experimental group that participated in FST program changed significantly FMS total scores after 12 weeks (p&lt;0.05). There were also significant differences in FMS total score between groups after the experiment (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><em>Conclusions: </em>There is a need for injury prevention programs for students of University of Physical Education and Sport in Gdańsk. It is clear from this study that FST is effective in improving FMS total score in students with cut off score ≤14.</p> Michał Sawczyn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 24 3 162 167 10.15561/20755279.2020.0306 The effect of resistance training without balance exercises on static balance skill <p><em>Background and Study Aim:</em> The aim is to evaluate the effect of resistance training without balance exercises on the static balance skill.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods:</em> The universe of the study consists of volunteer students who are chosen among the students with similar physical characteristics and training history (n=15) who are taking education at Istanbul Gelisim University, High School of Physical Education and Sports (n = 1286) who have any current health problems and disability history. An information form questionnaire (age, height, and weight, training history) was applied as a personal data collection tool. Static balance skill of the participants tested through AC International East Sp. Z O.O. which has the brand of– SIGMA Balance Platform which is found at performance measurement and evaluation laboratory of Istanbul Gelisim University, High School of Physical Education and Sports. Test procedures were applied before and after the 6-week resistance training program.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Statistically significant differences were detected in test values of Static balance skill x axis deviation rate of the study group, rate of deviation from the center in the x axis, the length of distance and average surface area which is used (P&lt;0,05).Conclusions: It was identified that 6-week resistance training practices without balance exercises have a positive effect on the development of static balance skill.</p> Mehmet Soyal Ömür Gülfirat Aydın Pekel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 24 3 168 173 10.15561/20755279.2020.0307 Efficiency of one-on-one play situations of Polish football players and their opponents during European Championships in relation to the playing area, current result and match <p><em>Background and Study Aim. </em>The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of players of the Polish national football team and their opponents in one-on-one situations (1-on-1) in 9 matches of the group stage of the three subsequent finals of the European Championships in the years 2008, 2012 and 2016.</p> <p><em>Material and methods. </em>Audiovisual recordings of matches were analysed and game data were collected using the authors' original observation sheet. Activity, effectiveness and reliability of individual offensive and&nbsp;defensive actions were evaluated in terms of current match result, time elapsed and player position on the pitch. Efficiency of one-on-one play situations of 40 Polish players competing in group stages of Euro 2008-2012 was studied. The 20 of Polish National Team players taking part in this study were at the student’s age (19-24 y) during championships and 6 of them were currently students or got a scientific degree.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> <p><em>Results. </em>The study reveals that, on average, players engage in 245 1-on-1 duels in&nbsp;a&nbsp;single match and that the best teams demonstrate almost 60% effectiveness in individual defensive actions. While the efficiency of 1-on-1 situations is the highest in the middle stage of both parts of the game and in the defensive zone, it decreases with the lapse of time and in relation with&nbsp;the shift of action towards the opponent's goal.</p> <p><em>Conlusions. </em>Efficiency in 1-on-1 play determines success in competition and high reliability of&nbsp;individual defensive actions at the level close to 60% is the key differentiator of the winners' style of play.</p> Andrzej Szwarc Christoph Kromke Aleksander Stuła Bartosz Dolański Mateusz Sitek ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 24 3 174 185 10.15561/20755279.2020.0308