Physical education of students 2021-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Sergii Iermakov Open Journal Systems <p style="background: #D2E4FA; width: 170px; border-radius: 5px 5px 5px 5px; text-align: center; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; color: #ffffff;"><a href="/index.php/PES/user/register" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Make a Submission</strong></a></p> <p>If your manuscript and figures are ready to submit according to the <a href="/index.php/PES/pages/view/trebovaniya-e" target="_blank" rel="noopener">manuscript formatting guidelines and requirements</a>, please proceed directly to the <a href="/index.php/PES/user/register" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ONLINE SUBMISSION SYSTEM</a> [Article Processing Charges (APC) <a href="/index.php/PES/pages/view/trebovaniya-e#25" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Information</a>]</p> <p>Journal "Physical Education of Students" (Abbreviated key-title: Phys. educ. stud. <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">e-ISSN 2308-7250</a>). <br> The previous title <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">"Fiziceskoe Vospitanie Studentov (Physical Education of Students)"</a> p-ISSN 2075-5279; e-ISSN 2223-2125 (01.07.2009 - 31.12.2012). <br> The previous title <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">"Fiziceskoe Vospitanie Studentov Tvorcheskikh Special'nostej (Physical education ot students of creative profession)"</a> ISSN 1993-4335 (30.11.1996 - 30.06.2009). <br><br> Journal is published 6 times per year (bimonthly: February, April, June, August, October, December). <br><br> Journal is ratified Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine (online):<br> physical education and sport (11.07.2019, № 975, “A” - 24.00.01, 24.00.02, 24.00.03; 017); (13.03.2017, № 374); pedagogical sciences (07.05.2019, № 612, “A” - 13.00.02; 011, 014); (22.12.2016, № 1604). <br> <br> All articles have <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOI (digital object identifier)</a> <br><br> All authors have <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ORCID</a> <br><br> INDEXING: Web of Science Core Collection (ESCI); DOAJ; <a href="/index.php/PES/pages/view/Indexing" target="_blank" rel="noopener">See more ►</a> <br><br> <a href="/index.php/PES/issue/current" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/images/FVS-e.jpg" alt="cover" width="218" height="312" align="left"></a> <br><br></p> <p><br> <a href=""><img src="" alt="Flag Counter" border="0"></a></p> <hr noshade="noshade" size="1" width="100%"> Mapping the intellectual and conceptual structure of physical education research: Direct citation analysis 2021-04-17T08:14:20+00:00 Andrzej Lis Mateusz Tomanek <p><em>Background and Study Aim.</em> The aim of the study is to identify and explore the intellectual and conceptual structure of physical education research. It is focused around the following study questions: (1) What are the most influential publications within the research field? (2) What are the research fronts in physical education studies?</p> <p><em>Material and Methods.</em> As a result of the research sampling process, the 10,334 publications indexed in the Scopus database were selected by the title search for the phrase ‘physical education’. Citation analysis, one of science mapping methods, was employed to conduct the analysis. The study process and the visualization of its findings were supported by the VOSviewer software. In the process of citation analysis, we used the following weight attributes: (1) custom weight attributes: the number of citations received by a document and the normalized of citations for a document, and (2) standard weight attributes: the number of citation links.</p> <p><em>Results.</em> Firstly, the most prominent references have been pointed out and discussed. The study of the effects of the SPARK physical education program in regard to physical activity of elementary school pupils by Sallis et al. (1997) is found to be the most cited publication in the physical education research field. The systematic literature review and meta-analysis of research on application of self-determination theory in the physical education context by Vasconellos et al. (2020) is recognized as the publication of the highest value of the normalized number of citations. The application of self-determination theory of motivation in physical education is the topic attracting a lot of attention of the top cited publications in the field. The prominent and central position of these references is confirmed by the analysis of citation links. Secondly, the following research fronts in physical education studies have been identified: (1) motivation in physical education, (2) physical education programmes, (3) development of physical education, (4) self-determination in physical education, (5) physical education and students’ academic achievement, (6) support of physical activity autonomy, (7) gender and physical education, and (8) long-term effects of physical education. Combining the research fronts identified with co-word analysis and direct citation analysis, the two-dimensional matrix mapping the conceptual structure of the physical education research field has been developed. The matrix categorizes publications according to their themes and the age of students / the levels of education, which are the object of the analysed studies.</p> <p><em>Conclusions.</em> The study contributes mainly to development of theory through mapping the scientific output within the physical education research field. Identification of core references provides valuable information for the scholars cultivating the field about the most recognized classical works receiving the highest number of citations and ‘emerging stars’ of the highest normalized number of citations. Such information is crucial for any theoretical reviews regarding the issues of physical education. Discovering research fronts points out the themes of the highest prominence and may be an indication for searching prospective research topics by authors. Developing the matrix to be used for mapping the conceptual structure of the research field is another contribution of the study.</p> 2021-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The effect of winter swimming on body's external temperature 2021-04-17T08:14:21+00:00 Anna M. Bach Dariusz Dziarkowski Szymon Gawrych Tetiana Yermakova <p><em>Background and Study Aim</em>. The main aim was to compare the changes in external body temperature of students who gave in an immersion of winter swimming.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods. </em>The study group consisted of 15 students, including 7 males and 8 females. The average age of the subjects was 22.4+1.12 years. The group was tested by measuring outer body temperature at 30 spots across their bodies by using a FLUXE 64 MAX pyrometer. Afterwards, subjects entered ice-cold water for 3 minutes. Immediately after leaving the water the second temperature measurements at the same 30 spots were conducted, and the third measurements were done 15 minutes after leaving the water. After 15 days of testing the comparison was made: temperature values from before and after the immersion.</p> <p><em>Results. </em>The students showed significantly higher average body temperature values before the testing (34.96°C ± 2.21 to 21.85 ± 3.68) and the lowest after the testing (29.86°C ± 4.91 to 6.26°C ± 1.04). The highest difference in average temperatures was obtained in the measurement of the left lower leg - front, the examination before and after (20.73°C), and the lowest in the measurement of the right hand - palm side, the examination after and 15 minutes after (0.19°C).</p> <p><em>Conclusions. </em>Winter swimming is becoming an increasingly popular sport activity. Conducted research shows the positive influence of winter swimming on human body and organism. The presented research should be further continued in order to learn more about the influence of cold on human body.</p> 2021-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The comparison of the effect of double and flat pyramid training methods on hypertrophy and muscular strength of male power-lifters 2021-04-17T08:14:21+00:00 Mohammad Rasekh Ramin Shabani <p><em>Background and Study Aim. </em>Resistance training is considered as the most effective method to increase muscle strength and mass. The present study aimed to compare the effect of a double pyramid and a flat pyramid training methods on hypertrophy and muscular strength of male power-lifters.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods. </em>Thirty students (age 21.40±1.71 years) were randomly assigned to three groups of double pyramid training (10 subjects), flat pyramid training (10 subjects), and the control trained by the traditional method (10 subjects). The experimental groups were trained three sessions a week for eight weeks whereas the control group continued their ordinary training program in the traditional method two sessions a week. Before and after the training, the muscular strength index was measured by bench press, leg press, and deadlift and the muscle volume was determined in their chest, arm, and thigh. Data were statistically examined by the analysis of variance and paired t test in the SPSS (ver. 21) software package. The significance level was set at the P&lt;0.05 level.</p> <p><em>Results.</em> Significant differences were observed among the studied groups in the variables of bench press, leg press, and deadlift, as well as in the variables of arm volume, chest volume, and thigh volume (P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.05). Bench press, leg press, deadlift, and the volume of arm, chest, and thigh were increased significantly from the pretest to the posttest in all three groups (P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.001).</p> <p><em>Conclusion.</em> A double and flat pyramid training period has similar positive impacts on muscular strength and volume of power-lifters.</p> 2021-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on body mass index in young adults 2021-04-17T08:14:21+00:00 Cristiana Pop Valentina Ciomag <p><em>Background and Study Aim.</em> We conducted our research on the supposition that in pandemic context the student’s weight might increase, influencing consequently BMI values. For the present moment humankind must cope with important changes and regulation which have massively impacted our daily lives. Social distancing measures taken in many schools and universities for limiting exposure and transmission coronavirus run counter how the education process is operating usually. The question that this context rises is: how people in general and especially young people are coping with this lack of physical activity and physical education changes?</p> <p><em>Material and Methods. </em>In this study were involved 176 male university students, 19.3±0.67 years of age, divided in two equal groups: the first one measured in 2018, with regular physical activity in face-to-face mode and the second one measured in the end of 2020, after almost one year of remote learning.</p> <p><em>Results</em>. In between the two measurements the BMI increased with 1.8 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, primarily because weight gain. It results that in just two years the percentage of young men with weight issues had a significant increase from 19.3% to 33%. Applying Bonferroni correction for two tests and p &lt; 0.05 it turns out that the two data samples are different with a statistical confidence &gt;95%.</p> <p><em>Conclusions.</em> Under the pandemic circumstances the energy balance between food consumption and physical activity was seriously disturbed, resulting in an increased BMI. Our results confirm this tendency presented in other studies on samples of adolescents and young adults, from different countries and regions.</p> 2021-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The 'Quiet Eye' and motor performance in basketball free throw shooting 2021-04-17T08:14:22+00:00 Ece Ayaz Kanat Deniz Şimşek <p><em>Background and Study Aim.</em> This study investigates expert and amateur basketball players' visual tracking strategies accuracy and inaccuracy free throws.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods.</em> A total of 22 university student, 11 of whom were experts (n = 5 females, n = 6 males) and 11 amateurs (n = 5 females, n = 6 males), without visual impairment, participated the study. Each athlete performed a total of 10 throws. The normal distribution of data recorded in both accurate and inaccurate throws was checked with the Shapiro-Wilk test. All of the data received on accurate and inaccurate throws were analyzed by independent samples t-test.</p> <p><em>Results.</em> Expert basketball players were recorded to have an average of 78% accurate throws out of 10, and as for amateur basketball players, they were recorded to have 34%. During accurate throws, the quiet eye durations of expert basketball players were identified as ~886ms, and quiet eye durations during inaccurate throws were as ~570ms. During accurate throws, the quiet eye durations of amateur basketball players were identified as ~612ms, and quiet eye durations during inaccurate throws were as ~388ms. The study's findings reveal that expert basketball players develop statistically longer quiet eye and fixation durations than amateur basketball players.</p> <p><em>Conclusion. </em>The study's findings have supported the phenomenon of longer quiet eye durations during expert athletes' specific motor skills. The knowledge obtained from the study's findings is thought to have the utmost significance in identifying the quiet eye durations of expert basketball players and teaching their visual strategies to amateur level athletes to improve their performance.</p> 2021-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relationship between somatotype components and muscle fiber type 2021-04-17T08:14:22+00:00 Fahri S. Çınarlı <p><em>Background and Study Aim.</em> It is stated that genetic factors, lifestyle and demographic components affect the morphological properties of the muscle; moreover, there is a relationship between adiposity indicators and skeletal muscle. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the somatotype components and obesity markers and the percentage of the fast twitch fibril type of skeletal muscle.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods. </em>Nine male students of sports sciences voluntarily participated in the study (age = 22 ± 3.24 years). By applying the isokinetic fatigue test protocol, which is a non-invasive method, the percentage of fast twitch fibril of the vastus lateralis muscle was estimated. Body fat ratio and somatotype body types of the participants were determined as indicators of obesity.</p> <p><em>Results. </em>There was a high positive linear correlation between the obesity indicators (endomorphy and body fat ratio) and the percentage of fast twitch fibril (r=0.738; r=0.809, p&lt;0.01 respectively). The variance between the endomorphy and body fat ratio expressing fatness and the fast twitch fibril percentage were found to be acceptable&nbsp; (54-65% explained variance). A moderate negative linear correlation was found between the ectomorphy and percentage of fast-twitch fibril (r= -0.674, p&lt;0.05). Finally, a moderate positive but statistically insignificant linear correlation was found between the mesomorphy and the percentage of fast twitch fibril (r=0.623, p&gt;0.05).</p> <p><em>Conclusion. </em>The findings show that the total fatness level of the body and the percentage of fast twitch fibril are not independent parameters and have a positive effect on each other.</p> 2021-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An investigation of fear of COVID-19 status in university student athletes from different sports associated with contact 2021-04-17T08:14:22+00:00 Celil Kaçoğlu Halil O. Çobanoğlu Emre Şahin <p><em>Background and Study Aim.</em> The aim of this research is to (i) examine the COVID-19 fear scales according to the contact rate of the sports branch of the athletes and (ii) examine the COVID-19 fear scales according to some demographic variables of the athletes.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods.</em> Sport Sciences Faculty students athletes (n=176) in sports with different levels of contact voluntarily participated in the current study. The fear of COVID-19 scale consisting of a total of 7 items and demographic information form and a single sub-dimension were applied online via Google® forms to individuals who participated in the study voluntarily. The data obtained from the study were analyzed using IBM SPSS 25.0 statistics package program. Due to the normal distribution of the data, sample t-test independent of parametric tests and one-way analysis of variance tests were used in the statistical analysis of the data. Bonferroni test, one of the multiple comparison tests, was used in order to determine which groups had significance according to the results of the one-way analysis of variance test. The results were tested at a significance level of p &lt;0.05. The Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient for the COVID-19 fear scale was found to be 0.88.</p> <p><em>Results.</em> Statistically significant difference was found between the fears of catching COVID-19 according to the gender of athletes in different branches (p = 0.01). No statistically significant difference was found between the fears of catching COVID-19 according to the educational status of the athletes (p = 0.31). No statistically significant difference found between the fears of catching COVID-19 according to the contact included in the specialty sports of the athletes in different branches (p = 0.56). Statistically significant difference was found between the highest level (professional) and intermediate level (amateur) groups ) in terms of fear of catching COVID-19 (p = 0.02). No statistically significant difference found between the fears of catching COVID-19 (p = 0.08) of the athletes in different branches according to their sports experience. Statistically significant difference was found in terms of fear of catching COVID-19 between the 4-6 years and 7-9 years groups with sports experience (p = 0.02). In addition, it has been revealed that the average scores of COVID-19 fear scales (20.05 ± 4.79) of female athletes are higher than the average scores of male athletes (17.67 ± 6.75).<em>Conclusions. </em>As a result, this research has revealed that the fear of COVID-19 does not differ relative to the contact levels of a specific sports branch. In addition, it has shown that the fear of COVID-19 is greater in female athletes compared to male athletes and lower performance levels and less competition experiences are in fact causing an increase in fear of COVID-19. </p> 2021-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Association of physical activity on exercise motivation and body mass index among university students 2021-04-17T08:14:23+00:00 Varghese C. Antony Kaukab Azeem <p><em>Background and Study Aim.</em> Motivation as a psychological feature that arouses and energizes people to action towards physical activity and makes them sustain to a physically active behavior. Motivation leads to increased participation in physical activity.&nbsp; The objective of this study was to determine the association of physical activity to exercise motivation of university students at different levels of body mass index.</p> <p><em>Material and Methods.</em> 140 undergraduate students Mean age 19±0.70 years randomly categorized into underweight &lt;18.5 kg/m<sup>2</sup> [n= 37: 26.4%]; normal-weight 18.5-24.9 kg/m<sup>2</sup> [n= 31: 22.1%]; obese ≥30.00 kg/m<sup>2</sup> [n=37: 26.4%] and obese class III ≥40.00 kg/m<sup>2</sup> [n=35: 25%]. Exercise motivation measured through BREQ-2.</p> <p><em>Results</em>. ANOVA revealed highly significant difference among BMI categories on intrinsic regulation (p=0.007&lt;.05) and identified regulation (p=0.006&lt;.05). Obese class III students differed on external regulation (p=0.003) and introjected regulations (p=0.011). The association of physical activity to exercise motivation revealed that students who engaged more time in physical activities had significantly higher scores on identified regulation (p &lt; 0.05) and intrinsic regulation (p &lt; 0.01).</p> <p><em>Conclusions.</em> The results suggested that university students in all BMI categories were internally motivated. The normal weight students exhibited high intrinsic and identified regulation, which reflected as better autonomous motivation. Physical activity had strong association with intrinsic regulation and identified regulation. Obese class students exhibited higher degree of extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Students who engaged more time in physical activity had better intrinsic motivation.</p> 2021-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##