The influence of low-performing students' motivation on selecting courses from the perspective of the sport education model

Keywords: curriculum, teaching strategy, physical education, education for sustainability

Abstract

Purpose : Most studies on the sport education model (SEM) have focused on curriculum content and assessed students’ learning outcomes on the basis of teaching units and items. In contrast to the SEM, direct instruction (DI) emphasizes the learning of each unit and involves a shorter learning period. Few empirical studies have explored the moderating effect of elective motivation on the relationship between the SEM and low student performance in PE. Material : The present study employed a nonequivalent pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design with an experimental group, which received education under the SEM, and a control group, which received DI. The experiment was conducted in a university in Taiwan, with 115 students from two badminton classes selected as participants. Results : The results revealed that when the SEM was employed in physical education (PE), students’ elective motivation toward PE courses improved significantly and was significantly higher than that of students receiving DI. The SEM also effectively increased the elective motivation of low-performing students. Conclusions : Students can experience success in a teamwork setting, avoid a sense of loss and helplessness commonly experienced during individual competition-based learning, and change their elective motivation toward PE courses.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 104 | PDF Downloads: 93 |

Author Biographies

Chun-Chieh Kao, Ming Chuan University
kao@mail.mcu.edu.tw; Taoyuan City, Taiwan
Yu-Jy Luo, Ming Chuan University
anitaluo@mail.mcu.edu.tw; Taoyuan City, Taiwan

References

1. Wu CS, Wang LY. A study on analyzing the content of curriculum structure and improving general education of Universities in Taiwan. Curriculum & Instruction Quarterly, 2017; 20: 1-23.

2. Tsangaridou N. Moving towards effective physical education teacher education for generalist primary teachers: A view from Cyprus. Education, 2016; 44: 632- 647.
https://doi.org/10.1080/03004279.2014.952757

3. Kao CC. Development of team cohesion and sustained collaboration skills with the sport education model. Sustainability, 2019; 11: 23- 48.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su11082348

4. Penney D, Clarke G, Quill M. Sport education in physical education: Research based practice. New York: Routledge; 2005.
https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203497449

5. Penney D, Kinchin GD, Clarke G, Quill M. What is sport education and why is it timely to explore it? In: Penney D, Clarke G, Quill M, Kinchin D, editors. Sport and physical education: The key concepts. New York: Routledge; 2005. P. 3-22.

6. Huang WY. Laws/regulations and compulsory/elective course systems for physical education curriculum of University. Sports Research and Review, 2017; 140: 19-26.

7. Holt NL, Sehn ZL, Spence JC, Newton AS, Ball GDC. Physical education and sport programs at an inner city school: Exploring possibilities for positive youth development. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 2012; 17: 97- 113.
https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2010.548062

8. Mowling CM, Brock SJ, Eiler K, Rudisill M. Student motivation in physical education: breaking down barriers. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 2004; 75: 40-45.

9. Zhang Y. Design and development of WEB-based remote network physical education teaching platform in colleges and universities. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 2018; 13(4): 150- 161.
https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v13i04.8478

10. Luo YJ. The influence of problem-based learning on learning effectiveness in students’ of varying learning abilities within physical education. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 2018; 56: 3- 13.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2017.1389288

11. Hannon JC, Ratliff T. Cooperative learning physical education. Strategies, 2004; 17: 29- 32.
https://doi.org/10.1080/08924562.2004.11000362

12. Parker MB, Curtner-Smith M. Health-related fitness in sport education and multi-activity teaching. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 2005; 10: 1- 18.
https://doi.org/10.1080/1740898042000334872

13. Kinchin GD. Sport Education: A View of the Research. Handbook of Physical Education, 1 Oliver’s Yard, 55 City Road, London: EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom: SAGE Publications Ltd; 2006. P. 596–609.
https://doi.org/10.4135/9781848608009.n33

14. Turan Z, Avinc Z, Kara K, Goktas Y. Gamification and education: Achievements, cognitive loads, and views of students. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 2016; 11(7): 64-69.
https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v11i07.5455

15. Pennington CG. Sport education and physical activity. International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, 2019; 8: 122-125.
https://doi.org/10.26524/ijpefs19114

16. Siedentop D. Sport education: A retrospective. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 2002; 21: 409-418.
https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.21.4.409

17. Perlman D. The influence of the sport education model on a motivated students’ in-class physical activity. European Physical Education Review, 2012; 18: 335-345.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X12450795

18. Lund J, Tannehill D. Standards-based physical education curriculum development. Burlington (MA): Jones and Bartlett; 2014.

19. Pan YH. Teaching personal and social responsibility through sport education model. Quarterly of Chinese Physical Education, 2013; 27: 105-112.

20. O'Neil K, Krause JM. The sport education model: A track and field unit application. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 2016; 87: 14-20.
https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2016.1226217

21. Sinelnikov OA, Hastie PA. Student’s autobiographical memory of participation in multiple sport education seasons. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 2010; 29: 167-183.
https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.29.2.167

22. Wang WY, Chen YF, Chou LC. The effects of sport education model on students' volleyball skill performance and learning motivation. Journal of Exercise Health Research, 2015; 4: 39-47.

23. Wallhead T, Garn AC, Vidoni C, Youngberg C. Game play participation of a motivated students during sport education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 2013; 32: 149-165.
https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.32.2.149

24. Deci EL, Ryan RM. Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press; 1985.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-2271-7

25. Bang M, Wohn K, Shi C. The establishment of an e-learning system based on SDT. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 2014; 9(4): 43-49.
https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v9i4.3704

26. Ryan RM, Deci EL. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 2000; 25: 54-67.
https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1020

27. Benita M, Roth G, Deci EL. When are mastery goals more adaptive? It depends on experiences of autonomy support and autonomy. Journal of Educational Psychology, 2014; 106: 258.
https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034007

28. Luo YJ, Chen WC, Kao CC, Ma IC. Constructing elective motivation scale of physical education curriculum with structural equation model. Journal of Sports AMOS Statistical and Applications, 2017; 6: 1-10.

29. Taylor IM, Ntoumanis N, Smith B. The social context as a determinant of teacher motivational strategies in physical education. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2009; 10: 235-243.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.09.002

30. Dewey J. Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of education. New York: The Macmillan Company; 1923.

31. Davis GA, Rimm SB. Education of the gifted and talented. Englewood Cliffs (NJ): Prentice Hall; 1989.
32. Williams KB. Academic support, social support, and professional development of higher and lower achieving psychology majors. North American Journal of Psychology, 2015; 17: 373-382.

33. VanZile-Tamsen C, Livingston JA. The differential impact of motivation on the self-regulated strategy use of high-and low achieving university students. Journal of University Student Development, 1999; 40: 54-60.

34. Landry JB, Sdmon MA. Self-determination theory as an organizing framework to investigate women's physical activity behavior. Quest, 2002; 54: 332-354.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2002.10491782

35. Escriva-Boulley G, Tessier D, Ntoumanis N, Sarrazin P. Need-supportive professional development in elementary school physical education: Effects of a cluster-randomized control trial on teachers’ motivating style and student physical activity. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 2018;7:218–34.
https://doi.org/10.1037/spy0000119

36. Moreno-Murcia J, Huéscar Hernández E, Ruiz L. Perceptions of Controlling Teaching Behaviors and the Effects on the Motivation and Behavior of High School Physical Education Students. IJERPH 2018;15:2288.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102288

37. Hills AP, Dengel DR, Lubans DR. Supporting public health priorities: Recommendations for physical education and physical activity promotion in schools. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 2015; 57: 368-374.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2014.09.010

38. Evans J. Equality, education, and physical education. London: Routledge; 2017.

39. Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd ed. Routledge; 2013.
https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203771587

40. Dana P, Peter C. Examining the influence of sport education on the precursors of a motivation. European Physical Education Review, 2016; 23: 212-222.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X16643921

41. Hastie PA, Buchanan AM. Teaching responsibility through sport education: prospects of a coalition. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2000; 71: 25-35.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2000.10608877

42. Pan Y-H, Huang C-H, Lee I-S, Hsu W-T. Comparison of Learning Effects of Merging TPSR Respectively with Sport Education and Traditional Teaching Model in High School Physical Education Classes. Sustainability, 2019;11:2057.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su11072057

43. Rocamora I, González-Víllora S, Fernández-Río J, Arias-Palencia NM. Physical activity levels, game performance and friendship goals using two different pedagogical models: Sport education and direct instruction. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy, 2019; 24: 87-102.
https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2018.1561839

44. Zimmerman BJ, Schunk DH. Self-regulating intellectual processes and outcomes: a social cognitive perceptive. In: Dai DY, Sternberg RJ. Motivation, emotion and cognition: integrative perspectives on intellectual functioning and development. Mahnah (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2004. P. 323-349.

45. Treasure DC, Robert GC. Students' perceptions of the motivational climate, achievement beliefs, and satisfaction in physical education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2001; 72: 165-175.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2001.10608946

46. Savage MP. University student’ motivation for participation in a basic instruction program. College Student Journal, 1998; 32: 58-65.

47. Biddle SJH, Mutrie N. Psychology of physical activity determinants, well-being and intervention. London; New York: Routledge; 2001.

48. Perlman D. Motivating the student: Sport education can be a framework for success. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 2014; 85: 12-16.
https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2014.926845

49. Chow JY. Nonlinear learning underpinning pedagogy: Evidence, challenges, and implications. Quest, 2013; 65: 469-484.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2013.807746

50. Vallerand RJ, Rousseau FL. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport and exercise: A review using the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In: Singer RN, Hausenblas HA, Janelle CM, ediros. Handbook of sport psychology. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley; 2001. P. 389-416.

51. Lee YM, Sun SH. The relationship between autonomous motivation of course-taking and learning engagement on college students. Journal of Research in Education Sciences, 2010; 55: 155-182.
Published
2019-12-18
How to Cite
1.
Kao C-C, Luo Y-J. The influence of low-performing students’ motivation on selecting courses from the perspective of the sport education model. Physical education of students. 2019;23(6):269-78. https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2019.0601
Section
Articles