SCHOOL AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS
AbstractPurpose : The aim of the study was to assess the level of school and out-of-school physical activity of children living in rural area at the early stage of their education. Material : The research was conducted in 2009 at primary school in Świętajno (a village). The study group consisted of 42 girls and 44 boys from the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd grade of primary school, aged 7-10. The children were chosen by means of a purposeful selection and surveyed by a questionnaire consisting of five open-ended and five closed-ended questions. Results : The research showed that the children living in the rural area at the early stage of their education eagerly participated in the classes of physical education held at school. The most popular physical activities among the children included: games and plays with the ball and other equipment, running, gymnastics (among girls) and matches and competitions (among boys). The outdoor physical activities in which the children were involved outside of school were spontaneous and unorganized including mainly cycling, roller-skating, skating or skiing. Conclusions : A marginal percentage of children participated in out-of-school sports trainings or other physical education-oriented classes (e.g. swimming lessons). A relatively high percentage of children devoted a great deal of their free time to watching television, DVDs or playing on the computer.
| Abstract views: 243 | PDF Downloads: 206 |
Bao W., Threefoot S.A., Srinivasan S.R., & Berenson G.S. Essential hypertension predicted by tracking of elevated blood pressure from childhood to adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. American Journal of Hypertension, 1995, vol. 8, pp. 657-665.
Cachay K. Sports Union and the development of sports. Theoretical comments. Stuttgart, Hofmann, 1990, pp. 87-113.
Chiolero A., Paradis G., Madeleine G., Hanley J.A., Paccaud F., & Bovet P. Discordant secular trends in elevated blood pressure and obesity in children and adolescents in rapidly developing country. Circulation, 2009, vol.119(4), pp. 558-566.
Crum B. The sportification of the society and the internal differentiation of sport. In: Proceedings of The First European Congress on Sport Management. 1993, pp. 149-153
Dwyer J.J., Hansen B., Barrera M., Allison K., Ceolin-Celestini S., Koenig D., Young D., Good M., & Rees T. Maximizing children’s physical activity: an evaluability assessment to plan a community-based, multi-strategy approach in an ethno-racially and socio-economically diverse city. Health Promotion International, 2003, vol.18(3), pp. 199-208.
Falgairette G., Deflandre A., & Gavarry O. Habitual physical activity, influences of gender and environmental factors. Science & Sports, 2004, vol.19(4), pp. 161-173.
Gilliam T.B., Freedson P.S., Geenen D.L., & Shahraray B. Physical activity patterns determined by heart rate monitoring in 6-7 year-old children.Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 1981, vol.13(1), pp. 65-67.
Jaworski Z. Workplaces in education sector for graduate students with MA degree in physical education. In Polish: Miejsca pracy w szkolnictwie dla magistrów wychowania fizycznego Kultura Fizyczna, 1994, vol.7-8, pp. 10-12.
Kafatos A., Manios Y., Markatji I., Giachetti I., Daniel Vaz de Almeida M., & Magnus Engstrom L. Regional, demographic and national influences on attitudes and beliefs with regard to physical activity, body weight and health in a nationally representative sample in the European Union. Public Health Nutrition, 1999, vol.2(1a), pp. 87-95.
Lee S., Burgeson C., Fulton J., & Spain C. Physical Education and Physical Activity: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006. Journal of School Health, 2007, vol.77, pp. 435-463.
Li S., Chen W., Srinivasan S.R., Bond M.G., Tang R., Urbina E.M., & Berenson G.S. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors and carotid vascular changes in adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Journal of American Medical Association, 2003, vol.290, pp. 2271-2276.
Lisicki T., Wilk B. The problems of health and health education as perceived by primary school pupils in Gdansk voivodeship. Research Report.Gdańsk, AWF, 1998, 168 p.
National Association for Sport and Physical Education & American Heart Association. 2006 shape of the nation report: status of Physical education in the USA. Reston, VA: National Association for Sport and Physical Education. 2006, 120 p.
Nowakowski A. The tasks of local government in the field of physical culture in the light of the Act of 1996. Physical Education and Sport[Wychowanie Fizyczne i Sport], 1997, vol.3, pp. 149-154.
Rohrer T.R., Rizzo V.F., Muelbredt O., Sprengart S., Gortner L., & Stierkorb E. Changes in hepatic risk factors, metabolic variables, body composition, and physical fitness in obese children after a one year weight loss program. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2008, vol.21(9), pp. 837-845.
Rütten A., & Abu-Omar K. Prevalence of physical activity in the European Union. Social Preventive Medicine, 2004, vol.49, pp. 281-289.
Scheerder J., Vanreusel B., Taks M., & Renson R. Social sports stratification in Flanders 1969-1999. Intergenerational reproduction of social inequalities. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 2002, vol.37(2), pp. 219-245.
Sławek M., Podstawski R., & Grymuza E. Health Education in the Opinions of Grade I-III Pupils Attending a Rural Primary School, In: E. Dybińska, H. Duda ed.,Lifestyle Education and Wellness Lublin, Neuro-Centrum Press. 2012, pp. 239-252.
Sorof J.M., Turner J., Martin D.S., Garcia K., Garami Z., Alexandrov A.V. Wan F., & Portman R.J. Cardiovascular risk factors and squealed in hypertensive children identified by referral versus school-based screening. Hypertension, 2004,vol.43, pp. 214-218.
Starosta W. How one should understand the biological minimum of daily movement activity and how import ant it is for the human health? Motor Activity People in Different Ages [Aktywność Ruchowa Ludzi w Różnym Wieku], 2010, vol.14, pp. 49-65.
Tucker L.A. The relationship of television viewing to physical fitness and obesity. Adolescence, 1986, vol.21(84), pp. 797-806.
Copyright Holder - Author(s). more