The effect of altitude and progressive exercise activity on the profile of testosterone changes and Some of immunity markers in active student basketball team

Keywords: Intermittent Altitude, Progressive Exercise Activity, Testosterone, Immunity Markers


Background and Study Aim. Training activities and altitude cause some of changes in the physiological adaptations and also athletic functionality. The purpose of this study was the effect of altitude and progressive exercise activity on the profile of testosterone changes and Some of immunity markers in active student basketball team. Material and Methods. As to subjects this survey, 36 active male students with an average age of (19.5± 0.83) were selected from 36 athletes with a maximum rate of oxygen uptake of about (VO2max=58.66± 2.9). The subjects, who were tested in the sea level f and post IAE (8 of periodical ascending to the height of 2800 meters for 3 days), were then asked on cycle ergometer (starting with 100 watts, increasing 25 watts every 3 minutes, with the work-to-rest ratio of 3 to 1) to exhaustion. The initial blood sampling of the subjects was done 72 hours before the main test to determine the similar conditions of the subjects, and to measure the initial level of Testosterone hormone, lymphocytes and neutrophiles, in the sea level. Also, the blood sampling of both after and before the progressive exercise activity and the IAE stage were done. The serumal concentration of testosterone was measured via Elisa method and the amounts of lymphocytes and neutrophiles were determined using Cell-Counter set. For statistical analysis, using the tests of Kolmogorov and Smirnov, repeated measurements were done in the level of  (p≤0.05). The complete process of analyzing the result was done through the software SPSS22. Results. The outcomes of the present survey show the amount of lymphocytes and neutrophiles after a session of progressive exercise activity have had a meaningful increase (p<0.05). But, the increase rate of testosterone was not meaningful difference  (p>0.05). Testosterone, lymphocytes and neutrophiles showed a meaningful increase after progressive exercise activity in IAE conditions (p<0.05).  Also, the amounts of Testosterone, lymphocytes and neutrophiles, before IAE has not shown a meaningful rise, when compared to sea level conditions (p>0.05).   Conclusions. It seems that, even though these changes were not meaningful, they were effective in reducing both the functionality of the subjects and the exhaustion duration. Therefore, it seems that repeated IAE sessions over three days can provide physiological adaptations to height and decrease Prevent performance.


Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 212 | PDF Downloads: 101 |

Author Biographies

Maria Rahmani Ghobadi, Islamic Azad University; Assistant Professor; Department of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University; Tehran Province, Iran.
Sepehr Taghavi Dehaghani, Islamic Azad University; Sports Physiology MSc student orientation is biological; South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University; Tehran, Iran.
Mohammadreza Nazari, Islamic Azad University; Sports Physiology MSc Student; Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University; Roudehen, Iran.


1. Radak Z, Radák Z. Free radicals in exercise and aging. Human kinetics; 2000.

2. Kenney, W. Larry, Jack H. Wilmore, David L. Costill. Physiology of sport and exercise. Human kinetics; 2015.

3. Dick F. Training at Altitude in Practice. Int J Sports Med, 1992;13:S203–5.

4. Levine BD, Stray-Gundersen J. “Living high-training low”: effect of moderate-altitude acclimatization with low-altitude training on performance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 1997;83:102–12.

5. Levine BD. Intermittent hypoxic training: fact and fancy. High Alt Med Biol, 2002;3: 177–93.

6. Stray-Gundersen J, Chapman RF, Levine BD. Living high-training low: altitude training improves sea level performance in male and female elite runners. J Appl Physiol; 2001;91: 1113–20.

7. Geiser J, Vogt M, Billeter R, Zuleger C, Belforti F, Hoppeler H. Training high-living low: changes of aerobicperformance and muscle structure with training at simulated altitude. Int J Sports Med, 2001; 22: 579–85.

8. Tiollier E, Schmitt L, Burnat P, Fouillot JP, Robach P, Filaire E, et al. Living high–training low altitude training: effects on mucosal immunity. European journal of applied physiology, 2005; 94(3): 298-304.

9. Mathieu-Costello O. Muscle adaptation to altitude: tissue capillarity and capacity for aerobic metabolism. High Alt Med Biol, 2001;2: 413-25.

10. Saunders PU, Telford RD, Pyne DB, Cunningham RB, Gore CJ, Hahn AG, et al. Improved running economy in elite runners after 20 days of simulated moderate-altitude exposure. J Appl Physiol, 2004;96: 931–7.

11. Fulco CS. Effect of Menstrual Cycle Phase on Muscle Fatigue and Physical Performance During High Altitude Acclimatization. Natick, MA: US Army Res. Inst.; 1998.

12. Klokker M, Kharazmi A, Galbo H, Bygbjerg I, Pedersen BK. Influence of in vivo hypobaric hypoxia on function of lymphocytes, neutrocytes, natural killer cells, and cytokines. J Appl Physiol, 1993;74: 1100–1106.

13. Savourey G, Garcia N, Besnard Y, Hanniquet A, Fine M, Bittel J. Physiological changes inducedby pre-adaptation to high altitude. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol, 1994;69: 221–227.

14. Kong F. Sleep Disorder at High Altitude. Sleep Medicine in Clinical Neurology [Working Title], IntechOpen; 2019.

15. Beidleman BA1, Muza SR, Fulco CS, Cymerman A, Ditzler DT, Stulz D, et al. Intermittent altitude exposure improve muscular performance at 4300M. J Appl Physiol, 2003; 95(5): 1824-32

16. Beidleman BA, Muza SR, Fulco CS, Cymerman A, Staab JE, Sawka MN, et al. White blood cell and hormonal responses to 4300 M altitude before and after intermittent altitude exposure. Clin Sci (Lond), 2006; 111(2): 163-9.

17. Lim CL, Byrne C, Chew SAN, Mackinnon LT. Leukocyte subset responses during exercise under heat stress with carbohydrate or water intake. Aviat Space Environ Med, 2005;76:726–32.

18. MacKinnon LT. Overtraining effects on immunity and performance in athletes. Immunol Cell Biol, 2000;78:502–9.

19. Pedersen BK, Steensberg A. Exercise and Hypoxia: effectson leukocytes and interleukin-6—shared mechanisms? Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2002; 34: 2004–2012.

20. Thake CD, Mian T, Granham AW, Mian R. Leukocyte counts and neutrophil activity during 4 h of hypocapnic hypoxia equivalent to 4000m. Aviat. Space Environ. Med, 2004; 75 (9): 811–7.

21. Dhabhar FS, Miller AH, McEwen BS, Spencer RL. Effect of stress on immune cell distribution. Dynamics and hormonal mechanisms. J. Immunol, 1995;154: 5511–5527.

22. Wilber RL, Holm PL, Morris DM, Dallam GM, Callan SD. Effect of FIO2 on Physiological Responses and Cycling Performance at Moderate Altitude. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2003;35:1153–9.

23. Hitomi Y, Miyamura M, Mori S, Suzuki K, Kizaki T, Itoh C, et al.. Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia increases the ability of neutrophils to generate superoxide anion in humans. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol, 2003;30: 659-664.

24. Tamura DY, Moore EE, Partrick DA, Johnson JL, Offner PJ, Silliman CC. Acute hypoxemia in humans enhances the neutrophil inflammatory response. Shock, 2002; 17(4): 269-73.

25. Vasankari TJ1, Rusko H, Kujala UM, Huhtaniemi IT. The effect of ski Training at altitude and racing on pituitary, adrenal and testicular Function in men. European Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1993;66(3): 221-5.

26. Humpeler E, Skrabal F, Bartsch G. Influence of exposure to moderate altitude on the plasma concentraton of cortisol, aldosterone, renin, testosterone, and gonadotropins. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1980;45(2-3): 167-76.

27. Lim CL, Byrne C, Chew SA, Mackinnon LT. Leukocyte subset responses during exercise under heat srress with carbohydrate or water intake. Aviat space Environ Med, 2005;76(8): 726-732.

28. Kurdi MR, Siakohian M. Cardiopulmonary Fitness Practical Tests. Tehran: Goddess; 2004.

29. Cumming DC, Brunsting LA, Strich G, Ries AL, Rebar RW. Reproductive hormone increases to acute exercise in men. Med Sci sports Exerc, 1986; 18: 369.

30. Hakienn K, Pakarinen A, Alen M. Neuromuscular adaptations and serum hormones in wonen durin short-term intensive strength training. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1992;64(2): 106-11.

31. Beall CM, Worthman CM, Stallings J, Strohl KP, Brittenham GM, Barragan M. Salivary testosterone concentration of Aymara men native to 3600 m. Ann Hum Biol, 1992;19(1): 67-78.

32. Nielsen HB, Secher NH, Chritensen NJ, Pedersen BK. Lymphocytes and NK cell activity during repeated bouts of maximal exercise. AM J Physiol, 1996;27(1): 222-227.

33. Pedersen BK, Hoffman-Goetz L. Exercis and the immune system: Regulation, Integration, and Adaptation. Physiol Rev. 2000;80(3): 1055-81.

34. Bailey DM, Davies B, Budgett R. Recovery from infectious mononucleosis after altitude training in an elite middle distance runner. Br J Sports Med, 1997;31: 153–4.

35. Yamada M, Suzuki K, Kudo S, Totsuka M, Symoyama T, Nakaji S, Sugawara K. Effect of exhaustive exercise on human neutrophils in athletes. Luminescence, 2000;15(1): 15-20.<15::AID-BIO570>3.0.CO;2-O

36. Nieman DC, Nehlsen-Cannarella SL, Fagoaga OR, Henson DA, Shannon M, Davis JM, et al. Immune response to two hours of rowing in elite female rowers. Int J Sports Med, 1999; 20(7): 476-81.

37. Thake CD, Mian T, Garnham AW, Mian R. Leukocyte Counts and Neutrophil Activity During 4 h of Hypocapnic Hypoxia Equivalent to 4000 m. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2004;75(9):811-7.

38. Thake CD, Mian T, Granham AW, Mian R. Leukocyte counts and neutrophil activity during 4 h of hypocapnic hypoxia equivalent to 4000 m. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 2004; 75: 811–817.
How to Cite
Rahmani Ghobadi M, Taghavi Dehaghani S, Nazari M. The effect of altitude and progressive exercise activity on the profile of testosterone changes and Some of immunity markers in active student basketball team. Physical education of students. 2020;24(1):47-4.