Balance performance in sedentary and active healthy young individuals – a cross-sectional study

Keywords: balance, physical activity, balance error scoring system, young individuals


Background and Study aim. Balance ability has a fundamental role in many activities of daily living, as well in athletic activities. The Balance Error Scoring System is a valid and reliable test used to evaluate postural balance. The aim of this study was to assess the postural balance in active and sedentary healthy young individuals. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the balance performance in forty-four healthy young individuals (mean age 21.69±4.87 years), based on their physical activity level. Balance was assessed using the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), and the total number of errors was scored, for the non-dominant limb (the left leg for both groups). The errors were counted for each of the six situations (double leg stance, single leg stance and tandem stance, on hard and soft surface). Results. Group 1 consisted of twenty-two active subjects (mean age 21.18±2.32 years, 59.09% females), with a BESS score of 9.87±1.6. The sedentary group (group 2), with twenty-two young subjects (mean age 22.22±6.61 years, 59.09% females), scored a significantly higher BESS score for the sedentary group (15.48±2.24) (p<0.001). No gender differences were recorded. Conclusions. Physically active young people have a better postural balance than do the sedentary ones, as scored with the BESS.


Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 567 | PDF Downloads: 287 |

Author Biographies

Radu Petroman, ”Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara; Department of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Rheumatology; Piața Eftimie Murgu 2, Timișoara, 300041, Romania.
Andreea Luciana Rata, ”Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara; Department of Vascular Surgery; Piața Eftimie Murgu 2, Timișoara, 300041, Romania.


1. Gribble PA, Hertel J, Plisky P. Using the Star Excursion Balance Test to Assess Dynamic Postural-Control Deficits and Outcomes in Lower Extremity Injury: A Literature and Systematic Review. Journal of Athletic Training, 2012;47:339–57.

2. Winter DA, Patla a E, Frank JS. Assessment of balance control in humans. Med Prog Technol. 1990;16: 31–51.

3. Kiss R, Schedler S, Muehlbauer T. Associations Between Types of Balance Performance in Healthy Individuals Across the Lifespan: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Front Physiol, 2018;9:1366.

4. Butler RJ, Lehr ME, Fink ML, Kiesel KB, Plisky PJ. Dynamic Balance Performance and Noncontact Lower Extremity Injury in College Football Players: An Initial Study. Sports Health. 2013;5: 417–422.

5. Onofrei R-R, Amaricai E, Petroman R, Surducan D, Suciu O. Preseason Dynamic Balance Performance in Healthy Elite Male Soccer Players. Am J Mens Health. 2019;13: 155798831983192.

6. Amăricăi E, Suciu O, Onofrei RR, Iacob ER, Iacob D, Popoiu CM, et al. Static plantar pressure and functional capacity in children with femoral shaft fractures treated by titanium elastic nailing. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2019;20: 565.

7. Skelton DA. Effects of physical activity on postural stability. Age Ageing. 2001;30: 33–39.

8. Chiriac VD, Craina ML, Stelea L, Onofrei RR, Radu D, Stoian D, et al. Physical Activity Level and Functional Status in Postmenopausal Women with Knee Osteoarthritis. In: Anastasiu D, Craina M, Hudita D, Russu M, editors. The XV Conference of the Romanian-German Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Timisoara, 6-8 June 2019. Timisoara: Filodiritto Publisher - International Proceedings; 2019. P. 542–545.

9. Sîrbu E, Buzaș R, Mihăescu R, Suceava I, Lighezan D. Influence of exercise training and eating behavior on arterial stiffness in young healthy students. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2015;127: 555–560.

10. Sîrbu E, Pantea C, Gligor S. Social implications of nutritional status and consequences on cardiovascular risk disease among undergraduate trained students. Rev Cercet si Interv Soc. 2014;45: 121–131.

11. Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, Franklin BA, Lamonte MJ, Lee IM, et al. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: Guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43: 1334–1359.

12. Unick JL, Lang W, Tate DF, Bond DS, Espeland MA, Wing RR. Objective Estimates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among Young Adults. Journal of Obesity, 2017;2017:1–11.

13. Sas IT, Banu A, Nicolae N, Bagiu R, Bagiu I, Mladinescu CF, et al. Particularities of the level of physical activity performed by adolescents. Rev Chim. 2018;69: 1023–1025.

14. Štefan L, Sporiš G, Krističević T. Are lower levels of physical activity and self-rated fitness associated with higher levels of psychological distress in Croatian young adults? A cross-sectional study. PeerJ, 2018;6:e4700.

15. Bagiu I, Putnoky S, Tuţă-Sas I, Miloicov CB, Popa M, Vlaicu B, et al. Manifestations of Self-harm in Relation with Binge Drinking to Students from Timis County, România. Rev medico-chirurgicală̆ a Soc Medici ş̧i Nat din Iaş̧i. 2015;119: 1106–1112.

16. van Melick N, Meddeler BM, Hoogeboom TJ, Nijhuis-van der Sanden MWG, van Cingel REH. How to determine leg dominance: The agreement between self-reported and observed performance in healthy adults. PLoS One. 2017;12.

17. Mahboubi Anarjan P, Monfared HH, Arslan NB, Kazak C, Bikas R. ( E )-4-Hydroxy- N ′-(2-hydroxy-5-iodobenzylidene)benzohydrazide methanol monosolvate. Acta Crystallogr E Struct Rep Online, 2012;68:o2698–o2698.

18. IPAQ Group. International Physical Activity Questionnaire Long Last 7 Days Self-Administered Format. In: IPAQ Website. 2002.

19. Riemann BL, Guskiewicz KM, Shields EW. Relationship between Clinical and Forceplate Measures of Postural Stability. J Sport Rehabil. 1999;8: 71–82.

20. Mancini M, Horak FB. The relevance of clinical balance assessment tools to differentiate balance deficits. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2010;46: 239–248.

21. Virag I, Stoicu-Tivadar L, Amaricai E. Browser-based medical visualization system. SACI 2014 - 9th IEEE International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics, Proceedings. 2014. P. 355–359.

22. Mușat A, Popa Z, Craina M-L, Onofrei R, Ramona, Luca CT, et al. Identification Of Postural Changes During Pregnancy By Using Baropodometry - Case Presentation. In: Anastasiu D, Craina M, Hudita D, Russu M, editors. The XV Conference of the Romanian-German Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Timisoara, 6-8 June 2019. Timisoara: Filodiritto Publisher - International Proceedings; 2019. P. 329–332.

23. Iverson GL, Koehle MS. Normative data for the modified balance error scoring system in adults. Brain Inj. 2013;27: 569–599.

24. Bell DR, Guskiewicz KM, Clark MA, Padua DA. Systematic review of the balance error scoring system. Sports Health. 2011;3: 287–295.

25. Broglio SP, Zhu W, Sopiarz K, Park Y. Generalizability theory analysis of balance error scoring system reliability in healthy young adults. J Athl Train. 2009;44: 497–502.

26. Docherty CL, Valovich McLeod TC, Shultz SJ. Postural control deficits in participants with functional ankle instability as measured by the balance error scoring system. Clin J Sport Med. 2006;16: 203–208.

27. Erkmen N, Takin H, Kaplan T, Saniolu A. The effect of fatiguing exercise on balance performance as measured by the balance error scoring system. Isokinet Exerc Sci. 2009;17: 121–127.

28. Guskiewicz KM, Ross SE, Marshall SW. Postural Stability and Neuropsychological Deficits After Concussion in Collegiate Athletes. J Athl Train. 2001;36: 263–273.

29. McCrea M, Guskiewicz KM, Marshall SW, Barr W, Randolph C, Cantu RC, et al. Acute Effects and Recovery Time Following Concussion in Collegiate Football Players: The NCAA Concussion Study. J Am Med Assoc. 2003;290: 2556–2563.

30. Onofrei RR, Amaricai E, Petroman R, Suciu O. Relative and absolute within-session reliability of the modified Star Excursion Balance Test in healthy elite athletes. PeerJ. 2019;7: e6999.

31. Daniel FDNR, Vale R, Giani T, Bacellar S, Dantas E. Effects of a physical activity program on static balance and functional autonomy in elderly women. Maced J Med Sci. 2010;3: 21–26.

32. Mann L, Kleinpaul JF, Mota CB, Santos SG dos. Equilíbrio corporal e exercícios físicos: uma revisão sistemática TT - Corporal balance and physical exercises: a systematic review. Mot rev educ fís. 2009;15: 713–722.

33. Nemes D, Catan L, Poenaru D, Dragoi M, Amaricai E, Popa D, et al. Life quality in patients with type III ankylosing spondylitis and secondary seronegative spondylarthropathies. Proceedings of 6th World Congress of the International-Society-of-Physical-and-Rehabilitation-Medicine (ISPRM). Edizioni Minerva Medica; 2011. P. 9–11.

34. Amaricai E, Poenaru D V. The post-stroke depression and its impact on functioning in young and adult stroke patients of a rehabilitation unit. J Ment Heal. 2016;25: 137–141.

35. Jakobsen MD, Sundstrup E, Krustrup P, Aagaard P. The effect of recreational soccer training and running on postural balance in untrained men. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011;111: 521–530.

36. Torres SF, Reis JG, Abreu DCC de. Influence of gender and physical exercise on balance of healthy young adults. Fisioter em Mov. 2014;27.

37. Greve JMDA, Cuǧ M, Dülgeroǧlu D, Brech GC, Alonso AC. Relationship between anthropometric factors, gender, and balance under unstable conditions in young adults. Biomed Res Int. 2013; 850424.

38. Alonso A, Luna N, Mochizuki L, Barbieri F, Santos S, D’Andreia Greve J. The influence of anthropometric factors on postural balance: the relationship between body composition and posturographic measurements in young adults. Clinics. 2012;67: 1433–1441.
How to Cite
Petroman R, Rata AL. Balance performance in sedentary and active healthy young individuals – a cross-sectional study. Physical education of students. 2020;24(2):115-9.