Effect of long-term training adaptation on isokinetic strength in college male volleyball players

Keywords: volleyball, strength, training, hamstring, muscle imbalance

Abstract

Background and Study Aim: Most of this study focused on endurance, power, and anthropometric measurements but no research declared isokinetic strength changes during two years. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of resistance exercises on two seasonal alters in isokinetic strength of knee muscles at different angular velocities, in college volleyball players. Material and Methods: Thirteen college volleyball players, (age: 21.75 years, body mass: 78.60 kg, and height: 187.0 cm) participated in the study. All college volleyball players take part in the two-year (8 month each year) volleyball-specific training and competitions. The measurement of peak isokinetic concentric knee extension and knee flexion torque in both legs were taken at 2 angular velocities of movement, low at 60° s-1, and intermediate at 180° s-1. Results: The pre- and post-test values of the peak isokinetic strength found that statistical significance difference, at 60° s-1 and 180° s-1 for knee extensor-flexor both dominant and non-dominant in favor of post-tests. Significant enhances were observed in the baseline dominant knee extensor-flexor muscle strength (extensor knee strength 60° s-1: 19.0%, 180° s-1: 20.5%, flexor knee strength, 60° s-1: 33.4%, 180° s-1: 31.4%) respectively. Non-dominant knee extensor-flexor muscle strength increased significantly over the two-year period (extensor knee strength 60° s-1: 21.3%, 180° s-1: 23.0%, flexor knee strength, 60° s-1: 37.4%, 180° s-1: 33.9%) respectively. Conclusion: As a result, our data suggests that the two-year planned program of specific volleyball and resistance training can increase the knee muscle extensor-flexor strength and H:Q ratios of volleyball players. Especially, at a 60° s-1 and 180° s-1 angular velocities, whilst the knee muscle extensor-flexor strength and H:Q ratios for dominant and non-dominant legs were increasing, also H:Q ratios disproportion were decreasing. Therefore, these alters indicated that regular specific-volleyball and resistance training can increase knee muscle extensor-flexor strength and H:Q ratios for dominant and non-dominant legs.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 229 | PDF Downloads: 202 |

Author Biographies

A. Kafkas, Inonu University
armagan.sahin@inonu.edu.tr; Malatya, Turkey
M.E. Kafkas, Inonu University
mkafkas1983@gmail.com; Malatya, Turkey
S. Savaş, Gazi University
seyfi@gazi.edu.tr; Ankara, Turkey

References

1. Borràs X, Balius X, Drobnic F, Galilea P. Vertical jump assessment on volleyball: a follow-up of three seasons of a high-level volleyball team. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2011; 25: 1686-1694.
https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181db9f2e

2. Marqeues MC, Cunha P, Resende L, Santos M, Domingos P. Changes in strength parameters during twelve competitive weeks in top volleyball athletes. International Journal of Volleyball Research. 2004; 7: 23–28.

3. Fontani G, Ciccarone G, Giuliannini R. Nuove regole di gioco ed impegno fisico nella pallavolo [New rules of play and physical commitment in volleyball]. SDS. 2005; 50: 14–20.

4. Eniseler N, Şahan Ç, Vurgun H, Mavi HF. Isokinetic strength responses to season-long training and competition in Turkish elite soccer players. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2012; 31: 159-168.
https://doi.org/10.2478/v10078-012-0017-5

5. Sattler T. Intrinsic risk factors for sport injuries in female volleyball. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2011; 45: 533-534.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2011.084558.3

6. Hadzic V, Sattler T, Markovic G, Veselko M, Dervisevic E. The isokinetic strength profile of quadriceps and hamstrings in elite volleyball players. Isokinetics and Exercise Science. 2010; 18, 31-37.
https://doi.org/10.3233/IES-2010-0365

7. Calmels PM, Nellen M, van der Borne I, Jourdin P, Minaire P. Concentric and eccentric isokinetic assessment of flexor–extensor torque ratios at the hip, knee, and ankle in a sample population of healthy subjects. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 1997; 78: 1224–1230.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9993(97)90336-1

8. Cheung RT, Smith AW, Wong DP. H:Q ratios and bilateral leg strength in college field and court sports players. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2012; 33: 63-71.
https://doi.org/10.2478/v10078-012-0045-1

9. Knapik JJ, Bauman CL, Jones BH, Harris JM, Vaughan L. Preseason strength and flexibility imbalances associated with athletic injuries in female collegiate athletes. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1991; 19: 76-81.
https://doi.org/10.1177/036354659101900113

10. Dvir Z. Isokinetics of the knee muscles. In: Isokinetics: muscle testing, interpretation and clinical applications. Z. Dvir, ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 2004.

11. Anderson L, Triplett-McBride T, Foster C, Doberstein S, Brice G. Impact of training patterns on incidence of illness and injury during a women's collegiate basketball season. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2003; 17: 734-738.
https://doi.org/10.1519/1533-4287(2003)017<0734:IOTPOI>2.0.CO;2

12. Magalhaes J, Oliveira J, Ascensao A, Soares J. Concentric quadriceps and hamstrings isokinetic strength in volleyball and soccer players. Journal of Sports Medicine Physical Fitness. 2004; 44: 119-125.

13. Newton RU, Rogers RA, Volek JS, Hakkinen K, Kraemer WJ. Four weeks of optimal load ballistic resistance training at the end of season attenuates declining jump performance of women volleyball players. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2006; 20: 955–961.
https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200611000-00037

14. Argus CK, Gill N, Keogh J, Hopkins WG,, Beaven CM. Effects of a short-term pre-season training programme on the body composition and anaerobic performance of professional rugby union players. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2010; 28: 679-686.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02640411003645695

15. Reilly T, Thomas V. Effects of a programme of pre-season training on the fitness of soccer players. Journal of Sports Medicine Physical Fitness. 1977; 17: 401-412.

16. Sheppard JM, Newton UR. Long-term training adaptations in elite male volleyball players. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2012; 26: 2180–2184.
https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31823c429a

17. Sheppard JM, Nolan E, Newton UR. Changes in strength and power qualities over two years in volleyball players transitioning from junior to senior national team. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2012; 26: 152–157.
https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31821e4d5b

18. Weir, JP. Quantifying test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2005; 19: 231–240.
https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200502000-00038

19. Hoff J, Helgerud J. Endurance and strength training for soccer players. Sports Medicine. 2004; 34: 165-180.
https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200434030-00003

20. Behm, DG, Sale, DG. Velocity specificity of resistance training. Sports Medicine. 1993; 15: 374-388.
https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199315060-00003

21. Sale DG. Neural adaptation to strength training. In: Strength and power in sports. P.V. Komi, ed. Oxford: IOC Medical Commission, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1992.

22. Holcomb WR, Rubley MD, Lee HJ, Guadagnoli MA. Effect of hamstring-emphasized resistance training on hamstring:quadriceps strength ratios. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2007; 21: 41-47.
https://doi.org/10.1519/R-18795.1

23. Croisier JL, Ganteaume S, Binet J, Genty M, Ferret JM. Strength imbalances and prevention of hamstring injury in professional soccer players: a prospective study. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2008; 36: 1469-1475.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546508316764

24. Orchard J, Marsden J, Lord S, Garlick D. Preseason hamstring muscle weakness associated with hamstring muscle injury in Australian footballers. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1997; 25: 81-85.
https://doi.org/10.1177/036354659702500116

25. Rosene JM, Fogarty TD, Mahaffey BL. Isokinetic hamstrings: quadriceps ratios in intercollegiate athletes. Journal of Athletic Training. 2001; 36: 378–383.
Published
2019-10-26
How to Cite
1.
Kafkas A, Kafkas M, Savaş S. Effect of long-term training adaptation on isokinetic strength in college male volleyball players. Physical education of students. 2019;23(5):236-41. https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2019.0504
Section
Articles