Survey of isometric scapulothoracic muscles strength in Mazandaran University of Science and Technology athlete’s student

Keywords: scapulothoracic strength, Muscle activity, scapular dyskinesia, handheld dynamometer


Purpose: Shoulder girdle muscles are important for stabilizing the scapula and orienting the glenoid for upper-extremity motion in student athletes. Scapular strength deficits have been linked to shoulder dysfunction. Material: study the data of scapulothoracic musculature in student athletes using a handheld dynamometer. Cohort study. 66 subjects with varying levels of overhead activity. A handheld dynamometer was used to test the upper, middle, and lower trapezius, rhomboids, and serratus anterior. A one way-factor ANOVA was performed for each of the muscles by activity level analyses. 2-factor ANOVA was performed for each of the muscles by activity level and unilateral ratio by activity-level analyses. Post hoc analysis included multiple pairwise comparisons, using the Dunn-Bonferroni correction method. Results: Activity level did not significantly affect the unilateral ratios: Elevation: depression was 2.47:1, upward: downward rotation was 1.23:1, and protraction: retraction was 2.35:1. A rank order from strongest to weakest was established through significant comparisons. Conclusions: The unilateral ratios along with the rank order should be considered when discussing scapula rehabilitation protocols. Assessment of the upper and lower trapezius and serratus anterior muscles and should be part of any shoulder examination.


Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 23 | PDF Downloads: 20 |

Author Biography

M. Forghani Ozrudi, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University; Mazandaran province, Babol City, Education office, Department of physical education, Qaemshahr, Iran


1. Garner BA. Designing strength-proportional hydraulic resistance for an elbow flexion-extension exercise machine. Journal of Medical Devices. 2007;1(1):3-13.

2. Ludewig PM, Cook TM. Translations of the humerus in persons with shoulder impingement symptoms. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2002;32(6):248-59.

3. Mayer F, Horstmann T, Bäurle W, Grau S, Handel M, Dickhuth HH. Diagnostics with isokinetic devices in shoulder measurements--potentials and limits. Isokinetics and exercise science. 2001;9(1):19-25.

4. Mcclure PW, Michener LA, Karduna AR. shoulder Function & 3-dimensional Scapular Kinematics In People With And Without Shoulder Impingement Syndrome. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical. 2007;37(7):420-1.

5. Neumann D. Kinesiology of the Musculoskeletal System: Foundations for Physical Rehabilitation. 3rd Edition. Elsevier eBook on VitalSource, 3rd Edition; 2017.

6. Cools AM, Johansson FR, Cambier DC, Velde AV, Palmans T, Witvrouw EE. Descriptive profile of scapulothoracic position, strength and flexibility variables in adolescent elite tennis players. British journal of sports medicine. 2010;44(9):678-84.

7. Smith J, Dietrich CT, Kotajarvi BR, Kaufman KR. The effect of scapular protraction on isometric shoulder rotation strength in normal subjects. Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery. 2006;15(3):339-43.

8. Smith J, Padgett DJ, Kaufman KR, Harrington SP, An KN, Irby SE. Rhomboid muscle electromyography activity during 3 different manual muscle tests. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2004;85(6):987-92.

9. Yang JL, Jan MH, Hung CJ, Yang PL, Lin JJ. Reduced scapular muscle control and impaired shoulder joint position sense in subjects with chronic shoulder stiffness. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2010;20(2):206-11.

10. Ekstrom RA, Bifulco KM, Lopau CJ, Andersen CF, Gough JR. Comparing the function of the upper and lower parts of the serratus anterior muscle using surface electromyography. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2004;34(5):235-43.

11. Michener LA, Boardman ND, Pidcoe PE. scapular Muscle Tests in Subjects With Shoulder Pain and Functional Loss: Reliability and Construct Validity. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical. 2006;36(6):434-5.

12. Garner BA, Pandy MG. Estimation of musculotendon properties in the human upper limb. Annals of biomedical engineering. 2003;31(2):207-20.

13. Pink MM, Tibone JE. The painful shoulder in the swimming athlete. Orthopedic Clinics of North America. 2000;31(2):247-61.

14. Holzbaur KR, Murray WM, Delp SL. A model of the upper extremity for simulating musculoskeletal surgery and analyzing neuromuscular control. Annals of biomedical engineering. 2005;33(6):829-40.

15. Hislop H, Montgomery J. Daniels and Worthingham’s Muscle Testing: Techniques of Manual Examination. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Science; 2018.

16. Peebles L, Norris B. Filling ‘gaps’ in strength data for design. Applied ergonomics. 2003;34(1):73-88.

17. Ekstrom RA, Donatelli RA, Soderberg GL. Surface electromyographic analysis of exercises for the trapezius and serratus anterior muscles. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2003;33(5):247-58.

18. Garner BA, Pandy MG. Musculoskeletal model of the upper limb based on the visible human male dataset. Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering. 2001;4(2):93-126.

19. Thigpen CA, Padua DA, Morgan N, Kreps C, Karas SG. Scapular kinematics during supraspinatus rehabilitation exercise: a comparison of full-can versus empty-can techniques. The American journal of sports medicine. 2006;34(4):644-52.

20. Bohannon RW. Measuring knee extensor muscle strength. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation. 2001;80(1):13-8.

21. Millar AL, Jasheway PA, Eaton W, Christensen F. A retrospective, descriptive study of shoulder outcomes in outpatient physical therapy. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2006;36(6):403-14.

22. Kibler BW, McMullen J. Scapular dyskinesis and its relation to shoulder pain. JAAOS-Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 2003;11(2):142-51.

23. Ludewig PM, Cook TM. Alterations in shoulder kinematics and associated muscle activity in people with symptoms of shoulder impingement. Physical therapy. 2000;80(3):276-91.

24. Ebaugh DD, Spinelli BA. Scapulothoracic motion and muscle activity during the raising and lowering phases of an overhead reaching task. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2010;20(2):199-205.

25. McClure PW, Michener LA, Sennett BJ, Karduna AR. Direct 3-dimensional measurement of scapular kinematics during dynamic movements in vivo. Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery. 2001;10(3):269-77.

26. Moghadam AN, Mohammadi R, Arab AM, Kazamnajad A. The effect of shoulder core exercises on isometric torque of glenohumeral joint movements in healthy young females. Journal of research in medical sciences: the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. 2011;16(12):1555.

27. Turner N, Ferguson K, Mobley BW, Riemann B, Davies G. Establishing normative data on scapulothoracic musculature using handheld dynamometry. Journal of sport rehabilitation. 2009;18(4):502-20.

28. Burkhart SS, Morgan CD, Kibler WB. The disabled throwing shoulder: spectrum of pathology Part III: The SICK scapula, scapular dyskinesis, the kinetic chain, and rehabilitation. Arthroscopy. 2003;19(6):641-61.

29. Burkhart SS, Morgan CD, Kibler WB. The disabled throwing shoulder: spectrum of pathology, part I: pathoanatomy and biomechanics. Arthroscopy.2003;19:404–420.

30. Christou EA, Grossman M, Carlton LG. Modeling variability of force during isometric contractions of the quadriceps femoris. Journal of motor behavior. 2002;34(1):67-81.

31. Cools AM, Witvrouw EE, Mahieu NN, Danneels LA. Isokinetic scapular muscle performance in overhead athletes with and without impingement symptoms. Journal of athletic training. 2005;40(2):104.

32. Ebaugh DD, McClure PW, Karduna AR. Three-dimensional scapulothoracic motion during active and passive arm elevation. Clinical Biomechanics. 2005;20(7):700-9.

33. Ekstrom RA, Soderberg GL, Donatelli RA. Normalization procedures using maximum voluntary isometric contractions for the serratus anterior and trapezius muscles during surface EMG analysis. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2005;15(4):418-28.

34. Wilk KE, Meister K, Andrews JR. Current concepts in the rehabilitation of the overhead throwing athlete. The American journal of sports medicine. 2002;30(1):136-51.
How to Cite
Forghani Ozrudi M. Survey of isometric scapulothoracic muscles strength in Mazandaran University of Science and Technology athlete’s student. Physical education of students. 2019;23(3):112-9.