The Effect of an Exhaustive Aerobic, Anaerobic and Resistance Exercise on Serotonin, Beta-endorphin and BDNF in Students




BDNF, Beta-endorphin, Serotonin, Aerobic Exercise, Anaerobic Exercise, Resistance Exercise


Background and Study Aim: Sport exercises play a major role in many hormonal factors which related to happiness in human. Therefore, the short-term effects of three anaerobic, aerobic and resistance exercises on (BDNF) and hormones related to happiness such as serotonin and beta-endorphin has been studied in young men in this research. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two students (19 to 25 years old) who did not have regular physical activity were randomly divided into four groups, after the subjects were eaten the same breakfast, the blood of them were taken before and after the various short aerobic exercises (Exhaustive exercise with 70% of maximum heart rate) and anaerobic (Exhaustive exercise with maximum intensity) and exhaustive resistance exercise (with 8 stations). Control group did not practice any activity. Specific kits and ELISA method have been used to determine their values. Data were analyzed using ANOVAand ANCOVA method at a significant level of 5%. Results: Beta-endorphins showed a significant increase in resistance and aerobic training sessions compared to control group. However, serotonin and BDNF had a significant intra-group change in the aerobic group. Conclusion: It seems that aerobic exercises are the best practice for increasing some of the hormones associated with happiness.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

M. Sharifi, Department of Sport Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University

(Corresponding author);; Sabzevar, Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

M.R. Hamedinia, Department of Sport Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University

Professor;; Sabzevar, Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

S.A. Hosseini-Kakhak, Department of Sport Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University

Associate Professor;; Sabzevar, Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran


Dietrich A, McDaniel W. Endocannabinoids and exercise. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2004;38(5):536-541.

Heyman E, Gamelin F-X, Goekint M, Piscitelli F, Roelands B, Leclair E, et al. Intense exercise increases circulating endocannabinoid and BDNF levels in humans—possible implications for reward and depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012;37(6):844-851.

Goekint M, Roelands B, De Pauw K, Knaepen K, Bos I, Meeusen R. Does a period of detraining cause a decrease in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor? Neuroscience letters. 2010;486(3):146-149.

Cotman CW, Berchtold NC, Christie L-A. Exercise builds brain health: key roles of growth factor cascades and inflammation. Trends in neurosciences. 2007;30(9):464-472.

Hassan EA-H, Amin MA. Pilates Exercises influence on the serotonin hormone, some physical variables and the depression degree in battered women. World Journal of Sport Sciences. 2011;5(2):89-100.

Pardridge W, Connor J, Crawford I, Oldendorf W. Pekmeability changes in the blood-brain barrier: causes and consequences. CRC critical reviews in toxicology. 1975;3(2):159-199.

Sharifi GR, Babaei A, Barkhordari A, Faramarzi M, Sadeh M. The effect of one exhausted exercise session on serum serotonin and prolactin level of men runners .occupational Medicine Quarterly journal. 2012; 4 (1,2):53-58

Zimmer P, Stritt C, Bloch W, Schmidt F-P, Hübner ST, Binnebößel S, et al. The effects of different aerobic exercise intensities on serum serotonin concentrations and their association with Stroop task performance: a randomized controlled trial. European journal of applied physiology. 2016;116(10):2025-2034.

Langfort J, Barańczuk E, Pawlak D, Chalimoniuk M, Lukačova N, Maršala J, et al. The effect of endurance training on regional serotonin metabolism in the brain during early stage of detraining period in the female rat. Cellular and molecular neurobiology. 2006;26(7-8):1325-1340.

Ohta M, Hirai N, Ono Y, Ohara M, Saito S, Horiguchi S, et al. Clinical biochemical evaluation of central fatigue with 24-hour continuous exercise. Rinsho byori The Japanese journal of clinical pathology. 2005;53(9):802-809.

Kirby LG, Chou-Green JM, Davis K, Lucki I. The effects of different stressors on extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Brain research. 1997;760(1):218-230.

Lemley K. Does Plasma ß-Endorphin Influence Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia in Healthy Adults? 2009.

Kraemer WJ, Dziados JE, Marchitelli LJ, Gordon SE, Harman EA, Mello R, et al. Effects of different heavy-resistance exercise protocols on plasma beta-endorphin concentrations. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1993;74(1):450-459.

Walberg-Rankin J, Franke W, Gwazdauskas F. Response of beta-endorphin and estradiol to resistance exercise in females during energy balance and energy restriction. International journal of sports medicine. 1992;13(07):542-547.

Goldfarb AH, Jamurtas AZ. β-Endorphin response to exercise. Sports Medicine. 1997;24(1):8-16.

Hackney AC. Exercise as a stressor to the human neuroendocrine system. Medicina (Kaunas). 2006;42(10):788-797.

Fazio E MP, Aronica V, Grasso L, Ferlazzo A. Circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol levels of stallions before and after short road transport: stress effect of different distances. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. 2008;50(1):6-12.

Bender T, Nagy G, Barna I, Tefner I, Kádas É, Géher P. The effect of physical therapy on beta-endorphin levels. European journal of applied physiology. 2007;100(4):371-382.

Di Luigi L, Guidetti L, Baldari C, Romanelli F. Heredity and pituitary response to exercise-related stress in trained men. International journal of sports medicine. 2003;24(08):551-8.

Øktedalen O SE, Haugen AH, Opstad PK. The influence of physical and mental training on plasma beta-endorphin level and pain perception after intensive physical exercise. Stress & Health. 2001;17(2):6.

Jamurtas AZ, Tofas T, Fatouros I, Nikolaidis MG, Paschalis V, Yfanti C, et al. The effects of low and high glycemic index foods on exercise performance and beta-endorphin responses. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2011;8(1):15-22.

Koseoglu E AA, Soyuer A, Ersoy O. Aerobic exercise and plasma beta endorphin levels in patients with migrainous headache without aura. Neurology. 2003;23(7):4-10.

Zhao J, Lai L, Cheung SS, Cui S, An N, Feng W, et al. Hot environments decrease exercise capacity and elevate multiple neurotransmitters. Life sciences. 2015;141:74-80.

Sheikholeslami Vatani D, Salavati, R. The Effects of Obesity and Resistance Exercise Order on Fatigue. Sport Biosciences. 2015;7(1):109-21.

Correia PR, Pansani A, Machado F, Andrade M, Silva ACd, Scorza FA, et al. Acute strength exercise and the involvement of small or large muscle mass on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Clinics. 2010;65(11):1123-6.

Vega SR, Strüder HK, Wahrmann BV, Schmidt A, Bloch W, Hollmann W. Acute BDNF and cortisol response to low intensity exercise and following ramp incremental exercise to exhaustion in humans. Brain research. 2006;1121(1):59-65.

Peake JM, Tan SJ, Markworth JF, Broadbent JA, Skinner TL, Cameron-Smith D. Metabolic and hormonal responses to isoenergetic high-intensity interval exercise and continuous moderate-intensity exercise. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2014;307(7):E539-E52.

Gómez‐Pinilla F, Ying Z, Opazo P, Roy R, Edgerton V. Differential regulation by exercise of BDNF and NT‐3 in rat spinal cord and skeletal muscle. European Journal of Neuroscience. 2001;13(6):1078-84.

Matthews V, Åström M-B, Chan M, Bruce C, Krabbe K, Prelovsek O, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is produced by skeletal muscle cells in response to contraction and enhances fat oxidation via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Diabetologia. 2009;52(7):1409-18.

Heijnen S, Hommel B, Kibele A, Colzato LS. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review. Frontiers in Psychology, 2016;6. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01890




How to Cite

Sharifi M, Hamedinia M, Hosseini-Kakhak S. The Effect of an Exhaustive Aerobic, Anaerobic and Resistance Exercise on Serotonin, Beta-endorphin and BDNF in Students. Physical Education of Students. 2018;22(5):272-7.

Abstract views: 2655 / PDF downloads: 1408