Effect of model’s skill level and frequency of feedback on learning of complex serial aiming task





Model’s skill level, Observational learning, Feedback Frequency, Serial Aiming Task, Complex Task


Background and Study Aim : Modelling in observational learning and feedback are most important sources of information for learning of a new task. This study aimed to investigate the effect of model’s skill level and feedback frequency on learning of complex serial aiming task. Material and Method: 48 female students aged 19 to 25 years old were selected as sample; based on pre-test scores, they were divided into four groups of 12 subjects: expert model and 100% feedback, expert model and 50% feedback, novice model and 100% feedback, and novice model and 50% feedback). In acquisition phase, the groups performed 80 times the serial aiming task according to specific instructions. The immediate retention test was conducted 15 minutes after completion of acquisition phase and the delayed retention test was conducted 24 hours later. Results: In acquisition stage, the results of analysis of variance with repeated measures showed that the expert model observation group had less spatial error and longer movement time. In immediate and delayed retention stages, the results of two-way analysis of variance showed that the expert model observation group had less spatial error and longer movement time. In delayed retention test, also, the main effect of feedback frequency on spatial error was significant. The 100% feedback group had less spatial error than 50% feedback group. Conclusion: According to Fitz’s speed-accuracy trade-off law, the results are justified as following: since the expert model observers focus on error reduction and increased accuracy in executing complex tasks, their movement time gets longer. Also, the 100% feedback frequency in complex tasks leads to stronger memory consolidation.


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Author Biographies

Gh. Lotfi, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University

(Corresponding author); gholamrezalotfi@sru.ac.ir; Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizzan, Tehran, Iran

F. Hatami, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University

fhatami2010@gmail.com; Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizzan, Tehran, Iran

F. Zivari, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University

fatemehzivari@sru.ac.ir; Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizzan, Tehran, Iran


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How to Cite

Lotfi G, Hatami F, Zivari F. Effect of model’s skill level and frequency of feedback on learning of complex serial aiming task. Physical Education of Students. 2018;22(5):252-7. https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2018.0504

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