Optimal distance of an external focus of attention in standing long jump performance of athletes

Keywords: students, distance effect, jumping, concentration

Abstract

Background and Study Aim: Recently, studies have shown that an external focus of attention improves the performance of individuals. Some studies have also confirmed the superiority of distances away from body for external focus of attention. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal distance of an external focus of attention when performing athletes' standing long jump. Material and Method: 51 volunteer students (M age= 23.31 ± 5.26 years) were selected as sample. At first all they performed a standing long jump in control status (without instruction for focus of attention). Then in an interpersonal counterbalanced design, a pair of jumps was performed with four different distances of an external focus of attention. These distances included 0.5, 2.5, 4 and 8 meters from the jump start line marked with colored tapes on the ground. Results: The results showed that having an external focus of attention compare to the control conditions has a significant advantage in the performance of the athlete's standing long jump. Also, the performance of athletes at different distances of an external focus of attention was compared. Results showed that the four-meter distance was significantly better performance than the half-meter distance of an external focus of attention. Conclusion: Four-meter distance can be introduced as the optimal distance of an external focus of attention in the performance of athletes’ standing long jump.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 153 | PDF Downloads: 102 |

Author Biography

Gh. Lotfi, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University
gholamrezalotfi@sru.ac.ir; Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, Tehran, Iran

References

Wulf G. Attentional focus and motor learning: A review of 15 years. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2013; 6: 77–104.

James W. Principles of psychology (Vol. 2). New York: Holt; 1890.

Schmidt RA, Wrisberg CA. Motor learning and performance: A situation-based learning approach. Human Kinetics; 2008.

Nideffer RM. Test of attentional and interpersonal style. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1976; 34: 394-404.

Sherwood DE, Lohse KR, Healy AF. Judging joint angles and movement outcome: shifting the focus of attention in dart-throwing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2014; 40(5): 1903-1914.

Lohse KR, Wulf G, Lewthwaite R. Attentional focus affects movement efficiency. In: Hodges N, Williams AM. Skill Acquisition in Sport: Research, Theory & Practice. London: Routledge; 2012.

Singer RN, Lidor R, Cauraugh JH. To be aware or not aware? What to think about while learning and performing a motor skill. Sport Psychologist, 1993; 7: 19-19.

Wulf G, McNevin NH, Shea CH. The automaticity of complex motor skill learning as a function of attentional focus. Quarterely Journal for Experimental Physiology, 2001; 54: 1143-54.

McNevin NH, Shea CH, Wulf G. Increasing the distance of an external focus of attention enhances learning. Psychological Research, 2003; 67: 22-9.

Davids K, Button C, & Bennett S. Dynamics of skill acquisition: A constraints led approach. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics; 2008.

Wulf G, & Lewthwaite R. Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: The OPTIMAL theory of motor learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2016; 1-33.

Wulf G, Dufek JS, Lozano L, Pettigrew C. Increased jump height and reduced EMG activity with an external focus. Human Movement Science, 2010; 29: 440-448.

McKay B, Wulf G. A distal external focus enhances novice dart throwing performance. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2012; 10(2): 149-56.

Saemi E, Porter JM, Wulf G, Ghotbi-Varzaneh A, & Bakhtiari S. Adopting an external focus facilitates motor learning in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Kinesiology, 2013; 45: 179-185.

An JS, Wulf G, Kim S. Increased carry distance and X-factor stretch in golf through an external focus of attention. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 2013; 1: 2-11.

Hadler R, Chiviacowsky S, Wulf G, Schild JFG. Children’s learning of tennis skilled is facilitated by external focus instructions. The Journal of Physical Education, 2014; 20(4): 418-422.

Pascua LAM, Wulf G, Lewthwaite R. Additive benefits of external focus and enhanced performance expectancy for motor learning. Journal of Sport Sciences, 2015; 33(1): 58-66.

Lohse KR. On attentional control: A dimensional framework for attention in expert performance. The Handbook of Sport Expertise, 2015; 38-49.

Porter JM, Anton PM, Wu WFW. Increasing the distance of an external focus of attention enhances standing long jump performance. Journal of Strength Conditioning Research, 2012; 26(9): 2389-93.

Wu WF, Porter JM, Brown LE. Effects of attentional focus strategies on peak force and performance in the standing long jump. Journal of Strength Conditioning Research, 2012; 26(5):1226-31.

Porter JM, Anton PM, Wikoff NM, Ostrowski J B. Instructioning skilled athletes to focus their attention externally at greater distances enhances jumping performance. Journal of Strength Conditioning Research, 2013; 27(8):2073-8.

Westphal W, Porter JM. Increasing the distance of an external focus of attention has limited effects on standing long jump performance. International Journal of Exercise Science, 2013; 6(4): 300-9.

Vance J, Wulf G, Töllner T, McNevin N, Mercer J. EMG activity as a function of the performer’s focus of attention. Journal of Motor Behavior, 2004; 36: 450–459.

Zachry T, Wulf G, Mercer J, Bezodis N. Increased movement accuracy and reduced EMG activity as the result of adopting an external focus of attention. Brain Research Bulletin, 2005; 67(4): 304-309.

Marchant DC, Clough PJ, Crawshaw M. The effects of attentional focusing strategies on novice dart throwing performance and their task experiences. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2007; 5: 291-303.

Zarghami M, Saemi E, Fathi I. External focus of attention enhances discus throwing performance. Kinesiology, 2012; 44(1): 47-51.

Asadi A, Farsi AR, Abdoli B. Effect of increasing the distance of an external focus of attention on performance and kinematic of horizontal jump in skilled athletes. Motor Behavior, 2016; 8 (23): 65-78. (In Persian)

Abdollahipour R, Nieto MP, Psotta R, Wulf G. External focus of attention and autonomy support have additive benefits for more performance in children. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2017; 32: 17-24.

Bell JJ, & Hardy J. Effects of attentional focus on skilled performance in golf. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 2009; 21(2): 163-177.

Ahmadi M, Borhani H. The effects of distance of attentional focus on accuracy, effectiveness and perception of performance in volleyball jump service. Research in Sport Management and Motor Behavior, 2015; 5(9): 21-29. (In Persian)
Published
2018-06-27
How to Cite
1.
Lotfi G. Optimal distance of an external focus of attention in standing long jump performance of athletes. Physical education of students. 2018;22(3):134-9. https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2018.0304
Section
Articles