Index of difficulty which is an effective factor on especial skill formation in basketball free throw: index of learning difficulty hypothesis

Keywords: Index of difficulty, memory representation, special skill, basketball

Abstract

Background and Study Aim: The purpose of this study is to examine the specific memory representation in special skill of Basketball Free Throw in distances (set shot) except 4.5 m distance. It is aimed to examine the role of the Index of Difficulty (ID) in creating the specific memory in other distances except the distance of penalty shoots. Material: Fifteen skilled basketball players (M age = 21.6 years, SD = 2.45 years) were chosen from sixty players; they performed 70 trials from 7 different distances on the first day (10 SHOTS from each distance toward the basket). The next day, each player performed 10 SHOTS from each distance, but this time, it was different in terms of the baskets’ sizes and their quantities. Results: The result of linear regression on trials score on the first day revealed the representation of special skill in penalty point and on the second day, representation of special skill was seen in 3 different distances from the ring (manipulated ring). These results indicate that Index of Difficulty protection can be a factor of private memory representation in distances except 4.5 m distance. Conclusions: Results suggest that mass training stabilizes the ratio of target distance and width (Index of Difficulty) in mind and this ratio is the main reason of specific memory representation in basketball free throw.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 305 | PDF Downloads: 181 |

Author Biographies

Talebi Roohollah, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
rohollah.talebi@yahoo.com; Daneshgah square, vakil abad street Mashhad, Iran
Reza Taheri Hamid, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
hamidtaherii@gmail.com; Daneshgah square, vakil abad street Mashhad, Iran
Sohrabi Mahdi, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
sohrabi@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir; Daneshgah square, vakil abad street Mashhad, Iran

References

Schmidt RA, Lee TD. Motor control and learning: A behavioral emphasis (4th ed). Skill learning. Psychological review. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics; 2005.

Bernstein NA. On dexterity and its development. In: Latash ML, Turvey MT. (Eds). Dexterity and it’s development. Mahwah N J. Erlbaum Publishers; 1996. P. 1-244.

Raibert MH. Motor control and learning by the state-space model (Tech. Rep. No. AI-TR-439). Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory; 1977.

Adams Jack A. A closed-loop theory of motor learning. Journal of motor behavior, 1971; 3.2: 111-150.‏

Okazaki V, Lamas L, Okazaki F, Rodacki A. Efeito da distância sobre o arremesso no basquetebol desempenhado por crianças [Effect of distance on the pitch in basketball played by children]. Motricidade. 2013;9(2):62-73. (In Portuguese)

Keetch KM, Lee TD, Schmidt RA. Especial skills: Specificity embedded within generality. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2008; 30: 723–736.

Breslin Gavin. An especial skill: Support for a learned parameters hypothesis. Acta psychologica, 2010, 134(1): 55-60.‏

Nabavi-Nik Mahdi, Taheri Hamid-Reza, Moghadam Amir. Massive amount of practice and special memory representations, “Special Motor Program Hypothesis”. Iranian journal of Health & Physical Activity, 2011; 2: 25-33.‏

Keetch Katherine M. Especial skills: their emergence with massive amounts of practice. Journal of experimental psychology: human perception and performance, 2005; 31(5): 970-980.‏

Breslin Gavin, Schmidt Richard A, Lee Timothy D. 19 Especial skills. Skill Acquisition in Sport: Research, Theory and Practice, 2012; 6: 330-337.‏

Davies Graham M, Thomson Donald M. Memory in context: Context in memory. John Wiley & Sons; 1988.‏

Kelso JA. Phase transitions and critical behavior in human bimanual coordination. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 1984; 246(6): R1000-R1004.‏

Turvey MT, Fitch HL, Tuller B. Part V: degrees of freedom, coordinative structures and tuning. In: Kelso, J.A.S. (Ed). Human Motor Behavior: An introduction. New Jersey: Erlbaum; 1978.

Thelen Esther, Smith Linda B. A dynamic systems approach to the development of cognition and action. MIT press; 1996.‏

Taheri HR, Talebi R, Kheir Andish A. The effect of manipulated of the distance and width of target on learning in basketball free threw: according to index of difficult. Motor behavior, 2015;7 (19):50-33.

Hacker W. Anforderungen a Regulation und Zeitbedarf bei gef¨uhrten Bewegungen: Zur G¨ultigkeit des Derwort—Von Weizs¨ackerschen Gesetzes der konstanten Figurzeit [Accuracy constraints and required duration for guided movements: The validity of Derwort-Von Weizs'acker's isochrony principle]. Zeitschrift f¨ur Psychologie, 1974;182: 307–337. (In German)

Kwon OS, Zelaznik HN, Chiu G, Pizlo Z. Human motor transfer is determined by the scaling of size and accuracy of movement. J Motor Behav. 2010;43(1):15-26.

Breslin Gavin. Constant or variable practice: Recreating the especial skill effect. Acta psychologica, 2012; 140(2): 154-157.‏

Newell Karl M. Schema theory: Retrospectives and prospectives. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 2003; 74(4): 383-388.‏

Stöckel Tino, Breslin Gavin. The influence of visual contextual information on the emergence of the especial skill in basketball. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2013; 35(5): 536-541.‏

Proteau Luc. On the specificity of learning and the role of visual information for movement control. Advances in psychology, 1992; 85: 67-103.‏

Proteau Luc, Marteniuk Ronald G, Lévesque Line. A sensorimotor basis for motor learning: Evidence indicating specificity of practice. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1992; 44(3): 557-575.‏

Park Jin-Hoon, Shea Charles H. Sequence learning: Response structure and effector transfer. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A, 2005; 58(3): 387-419.‏

Simons JP, Wilson J, Wilson G, Theall S. Challenges to cognitive bases for and especial motor skill emerging at the regulation baseball pitching distance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2009;80(3):469-479.

Nabavi Nik Mehdi, Abbas Bahram, Hamid Reza Taheri, Mahnaz Zolghadr. Investigation of visual context hypothesis on especial skills in the favorite location of experienced players. Pizhūhish dar mudīriyyat-i varzishī va raftār-i ḥarkatī, 2016;6(11): 20-28.‏ (In Arabic)

Khan MA, Franks IM. The utilization of visual feedback in the acquisition of motor skills. In: A. M. Williams, & N. J. Hodges (Eds.), Skill Acquisition In Sport Research: Theory and Practice. London: Routledge; 2004. P. 45-62.
Published
2018-04-27
How to Cite
1.
Roohollah T, Hamid RT, Mahdi S. Index of difficulty which is an effective factor on especial skill formation in basketball free throw: index of learning difficulty hypothesis. Physical education of students. 2018;22(2):83-0. https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2018.0205
Section
Articles