Functional systems of students’ organism depending on physical fitness to physical load

S.L. Popel’, G.A. Pyatnychuk, D.V. Pyatnichuk, V.V. Maystruv, V.P. Verboviy, N.A. Zemskaya, A.F. Kryzhanivskaya, R.Ya. Chovgan


Purpose: to study reaction of cardio vascular system and erythrocyte homeostasis in students with different fitness for physical load. Material: we tested students (n=150, from them n=105 - boys and n=45 - girls). дівчата). Measurements were fulfilled after maximal physical load on ergo meter (Kettler, German). The load was 2,7 W/kg. Results: indicators of vegetative blood circulation’s regulation depend on fitness level to maximal physical load. In 1st group students it manifested as sharp asymmetric indicators’ reverse between sympathetic and para sympathetic regulation of blood circulation. Besides, there appear reversibly and irreversibly changed forms of erythrocytes in periphery blood. In 2nd group students maximal physical load causes higher indicators of sympathetic circuit. In 3rd group students, under maximal physical load we did not find asymmetry between sympathetic and para sympathetic blood circulation’s regulation. Conclusions: between changes of vegetative blood circulation’s regulation and students’ fitness to maximal physical load there are multidirectional vectors of organism’s functional state. They manifest as natural changes of forms of periphery blood erythrocytes.


functional state; vegetative regulation; blood circulation; erythrocytes

Full Text:



Baevskij RM. Theoretical substantiation of modern approaches to assessment of cardio-vascular system’s adaptation reactions. Moscow: Medicine; 2009. (in Russian)

Bojchenko KIu. Study of sportswomen’s functional state with the help of new methodic approaches. Slobozhanskij naukovo-sportivnij visnik, 2014;2:38–41. (in Russian)

Bosenco AI, Samokih II, Strashko SV, Orlik NA, Petrovsky EP. Evaluation of junior courses students' level of mobilization of functional backlogs at the dosed physical activities at the pedagogical university. Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, 2013;11:3-9. doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.815867

Getmancev S, Bogush V, Iacuns'kij O. Indicators of sportsmen’s functional state in game kinds of sports. Sportivnij visnik Pridniprov’ia, 2010;3:50–54. (in Ukrainian)

Dovganik MS, Chichkan OA, Strel'chenko VV, Iavors'kij OG. Changes in cardio-vascular systems of men and women during long term health related run practicing. Slobozhanskij naukovo-sportivnij visnik, 2014;2:76-79. (in Ukrainian)

Zapovitriana EB, Korobeynikov GV, Korobeinikova LG. Peculiarities of vegetative regulation of heart rate in wrestlers of different age groups. Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, 2015; 19(4): 22-26. doi:10.15561/18189172.2015.0404

Zakharov VM, Trofimov IE. Homeostatic mechanisms of biological systems: homeostasis of development. Ontogenez, 2014;45(3):138–150. doi:10.7868/s0475145014030100

Es'kov VM, Khadarcev AA. Systemic analysis, monitoring and processing of information in biology and medicine. Samara: Etching; 2005. (in Russian)

Ivanova NV. Factors, determining functional state of sportsmen’s cardio-respiratory system (cyclic kinds of sports). Slobozhanskij naukovo-sportivnij visnik, 2013;5(38):108–111. (in Russian)

Korkushko OV. Methods of analysis and age standards of heart beats rate variability. Kiev; 2008. (in Russian)

Levchenko VA. Indexes of hemodynamics in a dosage of physical activity in girls against the background of low systolic blood pressure. Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, 2015; 19(2): 43-46. doi:10.15561/18189172.2015.0207

Lisiak VM. Functional changes in women’s organism, practicing fitness aerobics. Slobozhanskij naukovo-sportivnij visnik, 2014;3:53–56. (in Ukrainian)

Lisovs'kij B. Functional reserves of cardio-respiratory system as indicators of human health. Visnik Prikarpats'kogo universitetu, 2006;2:31–34. (in Ukrainian)

Malikov MV, Bogdanovs'ka NV, Svat'iev AV. Functional diagnostic in physical education and sports. Zaporozhye: ZNU; 2006. (in Ukrainian)

Mikhajlov VM. Testing load under ECG control. Ivanovo; 2005. (in Russian)

Mickan BM, Popel' SL, Mickan MA. Methods of physical condition, physical fitness and somatic health of schoolchildren’s research. Ivano-Frankivsk; 2000. (in Ukrainian)

Popel’ SL, Tsap IG, Yatciv YaN, Lapkovsky EYi, Pyatnichuk DV. Special aspects of hemo-dynamic and reaction of erythrocytes in blood to standard physical load of different qualification female volleyball players. Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, 2017; 21(5): 41-45. doi:10.15561/18189172.2017.05

Romanenko VA. Diagnostic of human organism’s functional abilities. Donetsk: Donetsk National University; 2005. (in Russian)

Svat’iev AV, Malikov MV. Functional diagnostic in physical education and sports. Zaporozhye: ZSU; 2004. (in Ukrainian)

Serdyuk IV. Results of study of indexes of arteriotony for students. Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, 2012;1:105–108.

Serorez T. The indicators of the physical health of students on the characteristics of the physical fitness, aerobic and anaerobic productivity of their body. Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, 2014; 18(9): 54-59. doi:10.5281/zenodo.10129

Serorez TB, Navka PI. Methodical features dispensing exercise, used in extracurricular activities to improve health students. Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, 2014; 18(5): 60-66. doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.971065

Cekhmistro LM. Adaptation of cardio-vascular system to physical loads in elite sportsmen of cyclic kinds of sports. Slobozhanskij naukovo-sportivnij visnik, 2013;5:266–270. (in Ukrainian)

Abdelha MAK, Abdelmotta S. Biochemical Changes of Hemoglobin and Osmotic Fragility of Red Blood Cellsin High Fat Diet Rabbits. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2010;13(2):73–77. doi:10.3923/pjbs.2010.73.77

Barker D, Wallhead T, Quennerstedt M. Student learning through interaction in physical education. European Physical Education Review. 2016;4:1–6. doi:10.1177/1356336x16640235

Brock SJ, Rovegno I, Oliver KL. The influence of student status on student interactions and experiences during a sport education unit. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy. 2009;14(4):355–375. doi:10.1080/17408980802400494

Chen S, Nam YH. Energy balance education in schools. European Physical Education Review. 2016;4:1–5. doi:10.1177/1356336x16641661

Ebner A, Schillers H, Hinterdorfer P. Normal and pathological erythrocytes studied by atomic force microscopy. Methods mol. biol. 2011;736:223–241.

Fuks AI, Elderer J, Ellemunter H. Cardiology clearance index: Normal values, repeatability, and reproducibility in Cardiology system-healthy children. Pediatric Cardiology. 2010;43(12):1180–1185.

Garaeva G, Vatamova S, Filatov M. Theory of Chaos and Self-Organization in Description of Functional Human Body Systems. Journal of New Medical Technologies. 2014;21(2):15–20. doi:10.12737/4989

Gmiat A, Mieszkowski J, Prusik K, Prusik K, Kortas J, Kochanowicz A, et al. Changes in pro-inflammatory markers and leucine concentrations in response to Nordic Walking training combined with vitamin D supplementation in elderly women. Biogerontology 2017:1-14. doi:10.1007/s10522-017-9694-8

González-Alonso J. ATP as a mediator of erythrocyte-dependent regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery in humans. Journal of Physioljgy. 2012;590(20):5001–5013. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2012.235002

Holcik M. Do mature red blood cells die by apoptosis? Trends in Genetics. 2001;18(3):121-126. doi:10.1016/s0168-9525(02)02652-5

Ignat’eva SN, Kubasov RV. Metabolic adaptation resources of organism to studying at medical university students in european north. Annals of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. 2014;69:11-12. doi:10.15690/vramn.v69i11-12.1188

Jastrzȩbski Z, Zychowska M, Jastrzȩbska M, Prusik K, Prusik K, Kortas J, et al. Changes in blood morphology and chosen biochemical parameters in ultra-marathon runners during a 100-km run in relation to the age and speed of runners. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2015;29(5): 801-814. doi:10.13075/ijomeh.1896.00610

Jensen FB. The dual roles of red blood cells in tissue oxygen delivery: oxygen carriers and regulators of local blood flow. Journal of Experimental Biology. 2009;212(21):3387–3393. doi:10.1242/jeb.023697

Kang M. Should the physical educator be held accountable for student physical activity levels beyond physical education?. Physical Education, Recreation & Dance. 2016;87(6):55–56. doi:10.1080/07303084.2016.1192930

Karle H. Destruction of erythrocytes during experimental fever. Acta Medica Scandinavica. 2009;186(1-6):349–359. doi:10.1111/j.0954-6820.1969.tb01487.x

Kortas J, Kuchta A, Prusik K, Prusik K, Ziemann E, Labudda S, et al. Nordic walking training attenuation of oxidative stress in association with a drop in body iron stores in elderly women. Biogerontology 2017: 1-8. doi:10.1007/s10522-017-9681-0

Kortas J, Prusik K, Flis D, Prusik K, Ziemann E, Leaver N, et al. Re: Possible effect of decreased insulin resistance on ferritin levels after Nordic Walking training. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 2016;11:150-151.

Kortas J, Prusik K, Flis D, Prusik K, Ziemann E, Leaver N. Effect of nordic walking training on iron metabolism in elderly women. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 2015;10:1889-1896.

Lambert MI. General Adaptations-Exercise: Acute Versus Chronic and Strength Versus Endurance Training. Exercise and Human Reproduction. London: Heidelberg Dordrecht; 2016.

Lorente-Catalan E, Kirk D. Student teachers understanding and application of assessment for learning during a physical education teacher education course. European Physical Education Review. 2015;22(1): 65–81. doi:10.1177/1356336x15590352

Mairbäurl H. Red blood cells in sports: effects of exercise and training on oxygen supply by red blood cells. Frontiers in Physiology, 2013;4:34–36. doi:10.3389/fphys.2013.00332

Mikhaylova LA. Central hemodynamics indices in senior pupils with increased educational and motive loading. Siberian Medical Review. 2013;3:55–58. doi:10.20333/25000136-2013-3-55-58

Mohanty JG, Nagababu E, Rifkind JM. Red blood cell oxidative stress impairs oxygen delivery and induces red blood cell aging. Frontiers in Physiology. 2014;5:1–5. doi:10.3389/fphys.2014.00084

Sassen B, Cornelissen VA, Kiers H. Physical fitness matters more than physical activity in controlling cardiovascular disease risk factors. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation. 2009;16(6):677–683.

Soares-Miranda L, Sandercock G, Valente H. Vigorous physical activity and vagal modulation in young adults. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation. 2009;16(6):705–711.

Tan Y, Sun D, Wang J. Mechanical characterization of human red blood cells under different osmotic conditions by robotic manipulation with optical tweezers. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 2010. Vol. 57, № 7. Р. 816–1825.

Zhu X. Student perspectives of grading in physical education. European Physical Education Review. 2015;21(4)409–420. doi:10.1177/1356336x15569628


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.