Investigation of the effect of courage behaviors on endurance levels of canoe athletes




sport, canoe, courage, mental toughness, student


Background and Study Aim. Courage in sports is a concept that has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. It is very important for the athletes to reveal their psychological performance as well as their physical and technical skills during competition and or training times. In this context, this research is important in terms of revealing the mental endurance and courage levels of canoe athletes who struggle not only with their competitors but also with natural conditions. Material and Methods. The sample of the research consists of 163 volunteer canoe athletes selected by simple random sampling method. In order to collect the necessary data in the research, the “Courage in Sports Scale” was used. The scale consists of the sub-dimensions of 'competence', 'determination', 'aggression', 'taking the risk' and 'being self-sacrificing'. T-test and ANOVA test were used in the analysis of the data. Statistically, the error level was accepted as p<.05 and the significance level was Alpha (α). Results. In the study, it was determined that the perception scores of the athlete students between the courage scale components were close to each other. No statistically significant results were found in all sub-dimensions according to gender and weekly training duration variables. According to the age variable: a significant result was determined in the dimensions of determination and assertiveness, and in the dimensions of stability according to the variable of doing sports. According to the education variable, it was determined that there was no significant difference in the risk-taking sub-dimension. There were significant differences in the other sub-dimensions. Conclusions. Without ignoring the acquisition of skills such as courage, it should be included in education and training programs from an early age and supported by sports training. Courage issues should be included in the training programs of educators (coaching training courses, seminars, etc.) and their importance should be emphasized.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Serkan Hacıcaferoğlu, İstanbul Technical University; Department of Physical Education and Sports, İstanbul Technical University; Turkey.

Levent Tanyeri, Kafkas University; School of Physical Education and Sports, Kafkas University; Turkey.

Orhan T. Emniyet, Provincial Directorate of Youth and Sports; Provincial Directorate of Youth and Sports; Turkey.


1. Weinberg S, Gould D. Introduction to psychological skills training. In: RS. Weinberg S. Gould D. Foundations of sport and exercise psychology. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2015.
2. Milavic B, Padulo J, Grgantov Z, Milić M, Mannarini S, Manzoni GM, et al. Development and factorial validity of the Psychological Skills Inventory for Sports, Youth Version – Short Form: Assessment of the psychometric properties. Blanch A (ed.) PLOS ONE, 2019;14(8): e0220930.
3. Brewer BW, [ed.]. Sport Psychology. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
4. Peterson C, Park N. Classification and Measurement of Character Strengths: Implications for Practice. In: Linley PA, Joseph S (eds.) Positive Psychology in Practice, 1st ed. Wiley; 2004. P. 433–446.
5. Brymer E, Oades LG. Extreme sports a positive transformation in courage and Humility. Journal of Humanıstıc Psychology, 2009;49(1):114–126.
6. Corlett J. Wirtue lost: Courage in sport. In: Hollowchak A. Eds: Philosophy in sport. New Jersey: Prentice Hall; 2002.
7. Peterson C, Martin EP Seligman. Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Oxford University Press; 2004.
8. May DR, Luth MT, Schwoerer CE. The influence of business ethics education on moral efficacy, moral meaningfulness, and moral courage: A quasi-experimental study. Journal of Business Ethics, 2014;124(1):67–80.
9. Staub RE. The heart of leadership: 12 practices of courageous leaders. Provo, UT: Executive Excellence; 1997.
10. Ward L. Nobility and necessity: The problem of courage in Aristotle’s Nicomachean ethics. American Political Science Review, 2001;95(1):71–84.
11. Schilpzand P, Hekman DR, Mitchell TR. An inductively generated typology and process model of workplace courage. Organization Science, 2014;26(1):52–77.
12. Tkachenko O, Louıs N. Quast, Song WEI, Jang S. Courage in the workplace: The effects of organizational level and gender on the relationship between behavioral courage and job performance. Journal of Management & Organization, 2020;26:899–7915.
13. Mavroudis C. Presidential address. A partnership in courage. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 2003;75(5):1366–1371.
14. Woodard CR. Hardiness and the concept of courage. Consulting Psychology Journal Practice and Research, 2004;56(3):173–185.
15. Maddi SR. Hardiness: The courage to grow from stresses. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2006;1(3): 160–168.
16. Dugas MJ, Gosselin P, Ladouceur R. Intolerance of uncertainty and worry: Investigating specificity in a nonclinical sample. Cogn. Ther. Res, 2001;25(5):551–558.
17. Castro-Sánchez M, Zurita-Ortega F, Chacón-Cuberos R, López-Gutiérrez C, Zafra-Santos E. Emotional Intelligence, Motivational Climate and Levels of Anxiety in Athletes from Different Categories of Sports: Analysis through Structural Equations. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2018;15(5): 894.
18. Moritz S, Feltz D. The relation of self-efficacy measures to sport performance: A meta-analytic review. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport, 2000;71(3):280–288.
19. Konter E. Handbook of sport psychology. Nobel Academic Publishing; 2006.
20. Pury CLS, Kowalski RM. Human strengths, courageous actions, and general and personal courage. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2007;2(2): 120–128.
21. Eraslan M, Hacicaferoglu B. Problems faced by physical education teachers in physical education lessons and in their professional lives in Turkey. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic Research, 2018;2(3):1–11.
22. Hacicaferoglu B, Gunel I, Duyan M. Effects of organizational stress management on job performance: An Application on sports organizations. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science, 2018:4(10);93–111.
23. Corlett J. Virtue lost: Courage in sport. Journal of the Phılosophy of Sport, 1996;23:45–57.
24. Konter E, Toros T. Courage of soccer players and their playing positions. Energy Educatıon Scıence And Technology Part B-Socıal And Educatıonal Studıes, 2012;4(4):1997–2006.
25. Hidrus AB, Kueh YC, Arifin WN, Konter, E, Kuan, G. Sports courage in malaysian silat athletes: Confirmatory factor analysis of the malay language version. Internatıonal Journal of Envıronmental Research and Publıc Health, 2020;17(5): 1736.
26. Konter E, Kueh YC, Kuan G. Courage in Competition: Adaptation of the sports courage scale for American English and validation of the factor structure with student-athletes at Clemson University. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2020; 17(13):4834.
27. Konter E, Johan NG. Development of sport courage scale. Journal of Human Kinetics, 2012;33(1):163–172.
28. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon; 2013.
29. Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, Hillsdale; 1988.
30. Lakens D. Calculating and reporting effect sizes to facilitate cumulative science: A practical primer for ttests and ANOVAS. Front Psychology, 2013;26(4):863.
31. Can Y, Kacay Z. Examination of the relationship between athlete identity perception and feelings of courage and self-confidence. Journal of Human Sciences, 2016;13(3):6176–6184.
32. Giulianou TA, Popp KE. Knight JL. Footballs versus barbies: Childhood play activities as predictors of sport participation by women. Sex Roles, 2000;42(3):159–181.
33. Konter E. Sport courage profile of adolescents in relation to level of empathic tendency, physical education and sport participation. Proceedings of the 14th İnternational Sport Science Congress. 1-4 October. Antalya: Turkey: 2016.
34. Cigrovski V, Radman I, Konter E, Ocic M, Ruzic L. Sport courage, worry and fear in relation to success of alpine ski learning. Sports, 2018;6(3):96.
35. Guvendi B, Turksoy A, Guclu M, Konter, E. Examining the courage levels and mental stamina of professional wrestlers. International Journal of Sports Exercise and Training Science, 2018;4(2):70–78.
36. Baser B. Mental endurance and sportive self-confidence in volleyball players. [Unpublished Master Thesis]. Hacettepe University; 2019.
37. Ekici S, Hacicaferoglu B, Caliskan K. Investigation of organizational commitment and organizational cynicism levels of managers working in sports organizations affiliated to the Ministry of Youth and Sports. Celal Bayar University Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, 2017;12(2):40–57.
38. Hacicaferoglu S, Kulaber E. Investigation of the contribution of sports activities to the self-confidence of sports students according to some variables. Journal of Social And Humanities Sciences Research, 2019;6(43):3020–3027.
39. Yildiz AB. Examination of the relationship between mental endurance and self-efficacy in athletes. [Unpublished Master Thesis]. Yildirim Beyazit University; 2017.
40. Konter E. Risalence of adolescents in relatıon to level of sport courage and selected demographıc, physıcal health, famılıal, educatıonal and sport varıables. 8th Internatıonal Scıentıfıc Conference on Kınesıology, 2017:521-524.
41. Doganer S, Gormus M, Kilic MO. Examination of the relationship between athlete identity and self-efficacy in terms of different variables. International Journal of Social Studies, 2020;13(69): 1466–1475.
42. Eraslan M, Karafil AY, Atay E. Evaluation of coping strategies with stress of muay thai athletes participating in intercollegiate sports competitions. Journal of Human Sciences, 2017;14(3):2915–2924.
43. Islam A. The effect of athletic mental energy on wrestlers' sports courage and attitudes toward. Physıcal Educatıon of Students, 2022;26(5):247-255.




How to Cite

Hacıcaferoğlu S, Tanyeri L, Emniyet OT. Investigation of the effect of courage behaviors on endurance levels of canoe athletes. Physical Education of Students. 2023;27(1):36-44.

Abstract views: 41 / PDF downloads: 83