Relationship between 2d:4d ratio, handgrip strength, and hamstring muscle length in different sports: a study of volleyball, football and basketball branches




Digit Ratio, 2D:4D, football, volleyball, basketball


Background and Study Aim. The relationship between the 2nd digit (2D) and the 4th digit (4D) provides much preliminary information about the physiological, psychological, and psychomotor characteristics of individuals. Although there are many studies on the 2D:4D ratio, the number of studies investigating the ratio in different sports is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the 2D:4D ratio, posterior thigh muscle length, and handgrip strength in different sports. Material and Methods. 63 athletes aged 18-29 years from football, volleyball and basketball participated in this study (nFutbol=20, nVoleybol=21, nBasketbol=22). Right and left hand width and length, 2D, 4D, 2D:4D ratio, grip strength, and hamstring muscle length of the participants were determined. When examining the relationship between the parameters, hand grip strength and hamstring muscle length, Pearson correlation analysis was performed. Results. In the study, there was a high correlation between right and left hand width, length, 2D, and 4D measurements and handgrip strength of volleyball and basketball players (p<.05). There was also a high correlation between left 2D:4D ratio in basketball players and handgrip strength (p<.05). There was a moderate correlation between football players’ 2D length of the football players and the length of the hamstring muscle (p<.05). In volleyball and basketball branches, no parameter was associated with hamstring muscle length in volleyball and basketball players. Sport age and right hand 2D:4D ratio were associated in football (p<.05). For volleyball, athletic age was associated with left hand width and length and 2D and 4D measures (p<.05). In basketball, athletic age was associated with left hand width and length. Conclusions. The results of the study suggest that some of the right and left hand measurements can be used to predict performance indicators such as hand grip and hamstring muscle length in the sports of football, volleyball, and basketball.


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Author Biographies

Ahmet Kurtoğlu, Bandırma Onyedi Eylül University; Faculty of Sport Sciences, Bandırma Onyedi Eylül University; 10200, Turkey.

Rukiye Çiftçi, Bandırma Onyedi Eylül University; Medical Faculty, Bandırma Onyedi Eylül University; 10200, Turkey.


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How to Cite

Kurtoğlu A, Çiftçi R. Relationship between 2d:4d ratio, handgrip strength, and hamstring muscle length in different sports: a study of volleyball, football and basketball branches. Physical Education of Students. 2023;27(1):17-23.

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