Effects of triphasic training model combined with two different cluster sets on vertical jump and reactive strength index

Keywords: triphasic training, cluster set, reactive strength index, vertical jump, power


Background and Study Aim: This study aims to examine the effects of the Triphasic Training Model (TTM) applied with different set designs (15-30 sec intra-set) on reactive strength index (RSI) and vertical jump values. Material and Methods:. Sixteen male athletes over 18 with at least three years of strength training experience (2 days a week) actively engaged in sports participated in the study. The study group was divided into two groups by calculating the relative strengths. The 15-second cluster set (C15) group exercises were performed with 15 seconds of rest between repetitions, and the 30-second cluster-set (C30) group practiced the exercises with 30 seconds of rest between repetitions. The triphasic training model was applied to all study groups for six weeks. Countermovement jump (CMJ) and drop jump tests were performed on the athletes before and after the training. Optojump brand photocell system was used for CMJ and RSI tests. For the RSI test, the desk height was determined as 40cm. Kolmogorov-Smirnov values were examined to assess the homogeneity of the data. To compare the means between groups, ANOVA was used for Repeated Measures, and a t-test was used to compare the pretest-posttest mean of the groups. The statistical significance level was determined as p<0.05. Results: After triphasic training, CMJ and RSI values of both C15 and C30 groups increased (p<0.05). When the within-group pretest-posttest values were examined, it was seen that the C30 group showed more improvement than the C15 group. Conclusions: As a result, it was seen that the triphasic training model applied twice a week for six weeks improved the CMJ and RSI values of the athletes, and it was more effective to use C30 instead of C15 in the use of cluster sets.


Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 17 | PDF Downloads: 19 |

Author Biographies

Selman Kaya, Yalova University
selman.kaya@yalova.edu.tr; Faculty of Sport Science, Yalova University; Yalova, Turkey.
Salih Pınar, Fenerbahce University
salih.pinar@fbu.edu.tr; Faculty of Sport Science, Fenerbahce University; Istanbul, Turkey.


1. Fleck S, Kraemer WJ. Designing Resistance Training Programs. Fourth ed: Human Kinetics, United State.; 2014.

2. Suchomel TJ, Nimphius S, Bellon CR, Stone MH. The Importance of Muscular Strength: Training Considerations. Sports Medicine. 2018;48(4):765–85.

3. Dietz C, Peterson B. Triphasic training: A systematic approach to elite speed and explosive strength performance. Bye Dietz Sport Enterprise; 2012.

4. Suchomel TJ, Sole CJ, Stone MH. Comparison of Methods That Assess Lower-body Stretch-Shortening Cycle Utilization. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(2):547–54.

5. McMahon JJ, Suchomel TJ, Lake JP, Comfort P. Relationship Between Reactive Strength Index Variants in Rugby League Players. J Strength Cond Res. 2021;35(1):280–5.

6. Byrne PJ, Moody JA, Cooper SM, Kinsella S. Acute Effects of ‘Composite’ Training on Neuromuscular and Fast Stretch-Shortening Cycle Drop Jump Performance in Hurling Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2021;35(12): 3474–3481.

7. Wilson GJ, Wood GA, Elliott BC. Optimal stiffness of series elastic component in a stretch-shorten cycle activity. J Appl Physiol. 1991;70(2):825-33.

8. Lehnert M, Croix MDS, Xaverova Z, Botek M, Varekova R, Zaatar A, et al. Changes in Injury Risk Mechanisms After Soccer-Specific Fatigue in Male Youth Soccer Players. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2018;62(1): 33–42.

9. McClymont D, Hore A, editors. Use of the reactive strength index (RSI) as an indicator of plyometric training conditions. Science and Football V: The proceedings of the fifth World Congress on Sports Science and Football. Lisbon: Portugal; 2003.

10. Haff GG, Hobbs RT, Haff EE, Sands WA, Pierce KC, Stone MH. Cluster Training: A Novel Method for Introducing Training Program Variation. Strength & Conditioning Journal. 2008;30(1): 67–76.

11. Hardee JP, Triplett NT, Utter AC, Zwetsloot KA, McBride JM. Effect of interrepetition rest on power output in the power clean. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(4):883–9.

12. Haff GG, Burgess S, Stone MH. Cluster training: theoretical and practical applications for the strength and conditioning professional. Prof Strength Cond. 2008;12:12–7.

13. Denton J, Cronin JB. Kinematic, Kinetic, and Blood Lactate Profiles of Continuous and Intraset Rest Loading Schemes. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2006;20(3): 528.

14. Davies TB, Tran DL, Hogan CM, Haff GG, Latella C. Chronic Effects of Altering Resistance Training Set Configurations Using Cluster Sets: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Medicine. 2021;51(4): 707–736.

15. Tufano JJ, Halaj M, Kampmiller T, Novosad A, Buzgo G. Cluster sets vs. traditional sets: Levelling out the playing field using a power-based threshold. Plos One. 2018;13(11): e0208035.

16. Girman JC, Jones MT, Matthews TD, Wood RJ. Acute effects of a cluster-set protocol on hormonal, metabolic and performance measures in resistance-trained males. Eur J Sport Sci. 2014;14(2):151–9.

17. Jukic I, Tufano JJ. Shorter but More Frequent Rest Periods: No Effect on Velocity and Power Compared to Traditional Sets not Performed to Failure. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2019;66(1): 257–268.

18. Faul F, Erdfelder E, Buchner A, Lang A-G. Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior Research Methods. 2009;41(4):1149–60.
19. Cook G, Burton L, Hoogenboom BJ, Voight M. Functional movement screening: the use of fundamental movements as an assessment of function‐part 1. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2014;9(3):396.

20. Baechle TR, Earle RW. Essentials of strength training and conditioning: Human kinetics; 2008.

21. Bobbert MF, Huijing PA, van Ingen Schenau GJ. Drop jumping. I. The influence of jumping technique on the biomechanics of jumping. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1987;19(4):332–8.

22. Young W. Laboratory strength assessment of athletes. New Studies in Athletics. 1995;10:89–95.

23. Souza AA, Bottaro M, Rocha VA, Lage V, Tufano JJ, Vieira A. Reliability and Test-Retest Agreement of Mechanical Variables Obtained During Countermovement Jump. Int J Exerc Sci. 2020;13(4):6–17.

24. IBM Corp. Released 2019. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 26.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. NY; 2019.

25. Russell JL, Brooks KA, editors. Effects of a Triphasic Block Method on Power in Collegiate Basketball Players. International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings, 2013;2(5): 74.

26. Cronin J, McNair PJ, Marshall RN. Developing explosive power: a comparison of technique and training. J Sci Med Sport. 2001;4(1):59–70.

27. Jimenez-Reyes P, Sarnozino P, Garcia-Ramos A, Cuadrado-Penafiel V, Brughelli M, Morin JB. Relationship between vertical and horizontal force-velocity-power profiles in various sports and levels of practice. Peerj. 2018;6: e5937.

28. Newton RU, Murphy AJ, Humphries BJ, Wilson GJ, Kraemer WJ, Häkkinen K. Influence of load and stretch shortening cycle on the kinematics, kinetics and muscle activation that occurs during explosive upper-body movements. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1997;75(4):333–42.

29. González-Hernández JM, García-Ramos A, Castaño-Zambudio A, Capelo-Ramírez F, Marquez G, Boullosa D, et al. Mechanical, Metabolic, and Perceptual Acute Responses to Different Set Configurations in Full Squat. J Strength Cond Res. 2020;34(6):1581–90.

30. Hansen KT, Cronin JB, Pickering SL, Newton MJ. Does cluster loading enhance lower body power development in preseason preparation of elite rugby union players? J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(8):2118-26.

31. Latella C, Peddle-McIntyre C, Marcotte L, Steele J, Kendall K, Fairman CM. Strengthening the Case for Cluster Set Resistance Training in Aged and Clinical Settings: Emerging Evidence, Proposed Benefits and Suggestions. Sports Medicine. 2021;51(7): 1335–1351.

32. Tufano JJ, Conlon JA, Nimphius S, Brown LE, Seitz LB, Williamson BD, et al. Maintenance of Velocity and Power With Cluster Sets During High-Volume Back Squats. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016;11(7):885–92.

33. Asadi A, Ramírez-Campillo R. Effects of cluster vs. traditional plyometric training sets on maximal-intensity exercise performance. Medicina (Kaunas). 2016;52(1):41–5.

34. Wetmore AB, Wagle JP, Sams ML, Taber CB, DeWeese BH, Sato K, et al. Cluster Set Loading in the Back Squat: Kinetic and Kinematic Implications. J Strength Cond Res. 2019;33 Suppl 1:S19–s25.

35. Tufano JJ, Conlon JA, Nimphius S, Brown LE, Banyard HG, Williamson BD, et al. Cluster Sets: Permitting Greater Mechanical Stress Without Decreasing Relative Velocity. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(4):463–9.

36. DeWeese BH, Hornsby G, Stone M, Stone MH. The training process: Planning for strength–power training in track and field. Part 2: Practical and applied aspects. Journal of Sport and Health Science. 2015;4(4):318–24.

37. Stone MH, Stone M, Sands WA. Principles and practice of resistance training: Human Kinetics; 2007.

38. García-Ramos A, González-Hernández JM, Baños-Pelegrín E, Castaño-Zambudio A, Capelo-Ramírez F, Boullosa D, et al. Mechanical and Metabolic Responses to Traditional and Cluster Set Configurations in the Bench Press Exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2020;34(3):663–70.

39. Banyard HG, Nosaka K, Vernon AD, Haff GG. The Reliability of Individualized Load-Velocity Profiles. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2018;13(6): 763–769.

40. Moreno SD, Brown LE, Coburn JW, Judelson DA. Effect of cluster sets on plyometric jump power. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(9):2424–8.

41. Aminaei M, Yazdani S, Amirseyfaddini M. Effects of plyometric and cluster resistance training on explosive power and maximum strength in karate players. International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology. 2017;6(2):34–44.
How to Cite
Kaya S, Pınar S. Effects of triphasic training model combined with two different cluster sets on vertical jump and reactive strength index. Physical education of students. 2022;26(4):188-95. https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2022.0404