The effect of plyometric training on competition period muscle damage in amateur footballers

Keywords: muscle damage, football, plyometrics, training


Background and Study Aim. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of plyometric training on the damage muscle in amateur footballers.  Material and Methods. The research group consists of 19 footballers with an average age of 23.41 ± 3.2. In addition to football training, the research group received a plyometric training program from the third week of the preparation period (two days a week) to the sixth week of the competition period (one day a week). Blood samples were taken in the sixth week of the competition period, before and after the training and on the day of the competition. CK activity was determined in sera obtained from centrifuged blood. It was analyzed with the Roche Diagnostic kit on an Integra (800-Roche) biochemistry device. Tests used: Vertical Jump Test; 30 m. Sprint Test; Illinois Agility Test; Flexibility Test. Statistical analysis were performed by t-test, according to normality test in SPSS 10.0 package program. Results. The blood samples taken before and after the training were compared with creatine kinasevalues. It was seen that there was an increase and this increase returned to normal on the match day. In 30 meters sprint tests and Iliniois tests, significant reductions were found (p<0.05). While a significant difference was detected in the pre- and post-tests, pre-training and match day, no significant difference was found in CK values (p>0.05). Conclusions. Based on the results of this study, it can be recommended to reduce the intensity of the training to be done after the plyometric training due to the high CK value in the blood. It can be said that plyometric studies can play an important role in improving the performance of footballers.


Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 333 | PDF Downloads: 210 |

Author Biography

Tayfun Şirin, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam Universty; Department of Coaching Education, Faculty of Sport Science, KahramanmarasSutcu Imam Universty; Kahramanmaraş, Turkey.


1. Armstrong, R, Greig M. The Functional Movement Screen and modified Star Excursion Balance Test as predictors of T-test agility performance in university rugby union and netball players. Physical Therapy in Sport; 2018; 31: 15–21.
2. Zemková E. Differential contribution of reaction time and movement velocity to the agility performance reflects sport-specific demands. Human Movement, 2016; 17(2): 94–101.
3. Greig M, Naylor J. The efficacy of angle-matched isokinetic knee flexor and extensor strength parameters in predicting agility test performance. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 2017; 12,(5): 728–736.
4. David D, Rodney K, Jonny D, Matthew G, Simon M, Amy D. A Step towards a Field Based Agility Test in Team Sports. Int J Sports Exerc Med, 2017;3.
5. Bradshaw RJ, Young WB, Russell A, Peter B. Comparison of offensive agility techniques in Australian Rules football. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2011; 14(1): 65–69.,1016/j.jsams.2010.06.002
6. Paul DJ, Gabbett T.J, Nassis G.P. Agility in team sports: testing, training and factors affecting performance. Sports Medicine, 2016. 46(3): 421–442.
7. Iaia FM, Rampinini E, Bangsbo J. High-intensity training in football.Int Journal Sports Physiol Perform. 2009 4: 291–306.https://doi:10.1123/ijspp.4.3.291
8. Dellal A, Varlıette C, Owen A, Chırıco EN, Adam H. Small-sıded games versus Interval training in amateur soccer players, effects on the aerobic capacity and the ability to perform intermittent exercises withc hanges of direction. Journal Strength CondRes, 2012; 26(10):2712–2720.
9. Srámek P, Simecková M, Janský L. Human physiological responses to immersion into water of different temperatures. Eur Journal Application Physiol.2000;81(5):436–42.
10. Bailey DM, Erith SJ. Griffin PJ. Influence of cold-water immersion on indices of muscle damage following prolonged intermittent shuttle running. Journal of Sports Sciences, 2007; 25(11): 1163–1170.
11. Eniseler N. Football in the Light of Science. İzmir: United printing; 2010.
12. Ekstrand J, Hagglund M, Walde M. Epidemiology of muscleinjuriesin Professional soccer. Am Journal of Sports Medicine, 2011;39(6):1226–1232.
13. Timmins RG, Bourne MN, Hickey JT, Maniar N, Tofari PJ, Williams MD, et al. Effect of Prior Injury on Changes to Biceps Femoris Architecture across an Australian Football League Season. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2017;49:2102–9.
14. Presland JD, Timmins RG, Bourne MN, Williams MD, Opar DA. The effect of Nordic hamstring exercise training volume on biceps femoris long head architectural adaptation. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 2018;28:1775–83.
15. Hickey JT, Hickey PF, Maniar N, Timmins RG, Williams MD, Pitcher CA, et al. A Novel Apparatus to Measure Knee Flexor Strength During Various Hamstring Exercises: A Reliability and Retrospective Injury Study. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 2018;48:72–80.
16. Brucker PU, Imhoff AB. Functional assessment after acute and chronic complete ruptures of the proximal hamstring tendons. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2005;13:411–8.
17. Ciğerci AE.The effects of aquatic and land pliometric trainings with additional load on some physical and physiological features of 15-17 age group basketball players [PhD Thesis]. Ankara: Gazi University; 2017.
18. Coetzee B. An overview of plyometrics as an exercisetechnique. South African Journalfor Research in Sport Physical Education and Recreation, 2007;29(1):61–82.
19. Twist C, Roger GE.Theeffects of exercise-induced muscle damage on maximal intensity intermittent exercise performance.EuropeanJournal of Applied Physiology, 2005; 94: 652–658.
20. Tofas T, Jamurtas AZ, Fatouros I, Nikolaidis MG, Koutedakis Y, Sinouris EA. Plyometric exercise increases serum indices of muscledamage and collagen breakdown. The Journal of Strengt hand Conditioning Research, 2008; 22(2): 490–496.
21. Smith LL, Mıles MP. Exercise ınduced muscle ınjury and ınflamation. In: Garrett JR, Kırkendall DT.(ed). Exercise and SportScience. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams And Wilkins; 2000. P. 401–411.
22. Kosova S, Beyhan R, Koca Kosova M. The effect of 8-week plyometric training on jump height, agility, speed and asymmetry. Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, 2022;26(1):13–18.
23. Schwane JA, Watrous BG, Johnson SR, Armstrong RB. Is Lactic Acid Related to Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness? The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1983;11:124–31.
24. Clarkson PM, Byrnes W, Mccormick K, Turcotte LP, White JS. Musclesoreness and serum creatine kinase activity following isometric, eccentric, and concentric exercise. Int Journal of Sports Medicine, 1986;7(3):152–51.
25. Vıncent HK, Vıncent KR. Theeffect of traning status on the serum cretine kinese response, soreness and muscle fonction fallowing resistance exercise. Journal Sports Medicine, 1997; 18(6):431–437.
26. Totsuka M, Nakaji S, Suzuki K, Sugawara K, Sato K. Breakpoint of serum creatine kinase after endurance exercise. Journal Applied Physiol. 2001; 93:1280–1286.
27. Schneıder CM, Dennehy CA, Rode AJ, Hayvard JR. Effects of physial activity on creaitiane phopsokinase and the ısoenzyme creatine kinase–MB. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 1995;25(4): 520–524.
28. Eryılmaz SK, Aslankeser Z, Ozdemir C, Ozgunen K, Kurdak S. The effect of 30-m repeated sprint exercise on muscle damage indicators, serum insulin-like growth factor-ı and cortisol. Biomedical Human Kinetics, 2019; 11(1): 151–157.
29. Miller T. NSCA’sguide to tests and assessments. Champaign IL: Human Kinetic; 2012.
30. Erol E. ExperimentalinVestigation of the effect of rapid strength training on the performance of 16-18 age group young basketball players [MSc Thesis]. Ankara: Gazi University; 1992.
31. Roozen M. Illinois agility test. NSCA's Performance Training Journal, 2004; 3(5): 5–6.
32. Tamer K. Measurement and Evaluation of Physical-Physiological Performance in Sports. 2nd Edition. Ankara: Bağırgan Publishing House; 2000.
33. Baechle TR. The essentials ofstrength trainingand conditioning. Human Kinetics; 1994.
34. Lin YY, Lin JS, Lin YF, Fang CL, Lin HC. Effects of plyometric training and creatine monohydrate supplementation on anaerobic capacity and muscle damage. Gazzetta Medica Italiana Archivio per le Scienze Mediche, 2012;171(3):313–22.
35. Kaplan İM. Muscle damage responses of two different eccentric hamstring exercises (Master'sthesis, University [MSc Thesis]. Denizli: Pamukkale University Institute of Health Sciences; 2019.
36. Khan MA, Moiz JA, Raza S, Verma SMY, Anwer S, Alghadir A. Physical and balance performance following exercise induced muscle damage in male soccer players. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 2016; 28(10): 2942–2949.
How to Cite
Şirin T. The effect of plyometric training on competition period muscle damage in amateur footballers. Physical Education of Students. 2022;26(1):27-4.