Injury prevention of student rock climbers based on the formation of rational technique of movements: a randomized control trial

Keywords: kinematic chain, training, trauma, elbow, bouldering

Abstract

Background and Study Aim. Students are often injured while playing sports. The main condition for preventing injuries is the correct technique of movements. In the literature, rock climbing has not been analyzed in terms of prevention of student injuries. Therefore, the development of programs to prevent injuries of students-rock climbers is relevant. Aim: to determine the impact of the use of exercises in a closed kinematic chain on the technical skill and the number of injuries to the elbows of student-rock climbers based on the analysis of the one-arm hang technique. Material and methods. First, to substantiate the correct technique in rock climbing, the technique of performing one-arm hang was analyzed by 20 leading male climbers of Ukraine and 20 students - novice male climbers. Then a randomized control study was conducted. The participants in the randomized control study were 40 male students-climbers in the intervention group and 44 male students-climbers in the control group aged 18-19 years. The one-arm hang technique was determined based on the angles between the shoulder and the collarbone during the movement. The experiment lasted 1 year. At the beginning and at the end of the experiment, the analysis of the one-arm hang technique was carried out. The number of elbow injuries in both groups was also recorded. Results. The main parameters of the one-arm hang technique for qualified and unskilled climbers have been substantiated. For qualified climbers, one-arm hang involves the muscles of the shoulder girdle, torso, and legs. In unskilled climbers, one-arm hang is provided only by the muscles of the arm. In a control randomized study, there was a significant improvement in the results of biomechanical analysis of the hang technique in athletes in the intervention group (p <0.001). The use of exercises in a closed kinematic chain significantly reduces the incidence rate of elbow injuries in student-climbers (p <0.05). The odds rate of mild elbow injuries in the control group was 4.625 times higher than the intervention one (95% CI: 1.198; 17.854), the odds rate of moderate injuries in the control group was 5.588 times higher than in the control group than the intervention one (95% CI: 1.143; 27.324). Conclusions. Exercises in closed kinematic chains are an effective means of improving climbing technique and injury preventing to university students during rock climbing.

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Author Biographies

Serhii Kozin, H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University
kozin.serenya@gmail.com; H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University; Kharkiv, Ukraine.
Zhanneta Kozina, H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University
zhanneta.kozina@gmail.com; H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University; Kharkiv, Ukraine.
Marina Jagiello, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport
wjagiello1@wp.pl; Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport; Gdansk, Poland.
Marko Joksimović, Institute of Sports and Sports Medicine
nicifor007@outlook.com; Institute of Sports and Sports Medicine; Podgorica, Montenegro.

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Published
2021-10-30
How to Cite
1.
Kozin S, Kozina Z, Jagiello M, Joksimović M. Injury prevention of student rock climbers based on the formation of rational technique of movements: a randomized control trial. Physical education of students. 2021;25(5):307-18. https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2021.0507
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