The effect of winter swimming on body's external temperature

Keywords: winter swimming, thermoregulation, non-invasive temperature measurement, blood flow, body reaction to cold

Abstract

Background and Study Aim. The main aim was to compare the changes in external body temperature of students who gave in an immersion of winter swimming. Material and Methods. The study group consisted of 15 students, including 7 males and 8 females. The average age of the subjects was 22.4+1.12 years. The group was tested by measuring outer body temperature at 30 spots across their bodies by using a FLUXE 64 MAX pyrometer. Afterwards, subjects entered ice-cold water for 3 minutes. Immediately after leaving the water the second temperature measurements at the same 30 spots were conducted, and the third measurements were done 15 minutes after leaving the water. After 15 days of testing the comparison was made: temperature values from before and after the immersion. Results. The students showed significantly higher average body temperature values before the testing (34.96°C ± 2.21 to 21.85 ± 3.68) and the lowest after the testing (29.86°C ± 4.91 to 6.26°C ± 1.04). The highest difference in average temperatures was obtained in the measurement of the left lower leg - front, the examination before and after (20.73°C), and the lowest in the measurement of the right hand - palm side, the examination after and 15 minutes after (0.19°C). Conclusions. Winter swimming is becoming an increasingly popular sport activity. Conducted research shows the positive influence of winter swimming on human body and organism. The presented research should be further continued in order to learn more about the influence of cold on human body.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 45 | PDF Downloads: 17 |

Author Biographies

Anna M. Bach, Collegium Medicum im. L.Rydygiera in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
annamdobo@gmail.com; Collegium Medicum im. L.Rydygiera in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń; Toruń, Poland
Dariusz Dziarkowski, Collegium Medicum im. L.Rydygiera in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
darekdziarkowski@gmail.com; Collegium Medicum im. L.Rydygiera in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń; Toruń, Poland
Szymon Gawrych, Collegium Medicum im. L.Rydygiera in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
gawrychszymon@yahoo.pl; Collegium Medicum im. L.Rydygiera in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń; Toruń, Poland
Tetiana Yermakova, Kharkov State Academy of Design and Arts
yermakova2015@gmail.com; Department of Pedagogy, Kharkov State Academy of Design and Arts; Kharkov, Ukraine.

References

1. Morrison SF, Nakamura K. Central Mechanisms for Thermoregulation. Annu Rev Physiol, 201981:285–308.
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-physiol-020518-114546

2. Sessler DI. Perioperative thermoregulation and heat balance. Lancet, 2016;387(10038):2655–2664.
https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0140-6736(15)00981-2

3. Castellani JW, Young AJ. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure. Auton Neurosci, 2016; 196:63–74.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autneu.2016.02.009

4. Chen KY, Brychta RJ, Abdul Sater Z, Cassimatis TM, Cero C, Fletcher LA, et al. Opportunities and challenges in the therapeutic activation of human energy expenditure and thermogenesis to manage obesity. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2020;295:1926–42.
https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.REV119.007363

5. Nowack J, Giroud S, Arnold W, Ruf T. Muscle non-shivering thermogenesis and its role in the evolution of endothermy. Front. Physiol, 2017; 8:889.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00889

6. Checinska-Maciejewska Z, Niepolski L, Checinska A, Korek E, Kolodziejczak B, Kopczynski Z, et al. Regular cold water swimming during winter time affects resting hematological parameters and serum erythropoietin. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 2019; 70(5): 747–756.
https://doi.org/10.26402/jpp.2019.5.10

7. Mila-Kierzenkowska C, Augustyńska B, Woźniak A, Boraczyński T, Wesołowski R, Sutkowy P, et al. Wpływ zmian temperatury otoczenia na wskaźniki stresu oksydacyjnego we krwi osób regularnie poddających się kąpielom wodnym [Effects of changes in environmental temperature on oxidative stress indicators in blood of subjects undergoing regular winter swimming]. Medycyna Ogólna i Nauki o Zdrowiu, 2016;22(1):46–50. (In Polish).
https://doi.org/10.5604/20834543.1198723

8. Tipton MJ, Collier N, Massey H, Corbett J, Harper M. Cold water immersion: kill or cure? Exp Physiol, 2017;102(11):1335–1355.
https://doi.org/10.1113/EP086283

9. Acosta FM, Martinez-Tellez B, Sanchez-Delgado G, Alcantara JMA, Acosta-Manzano P, Morales-Artacho AJ, et al. Physiological responses to acute cold exposure in young lean men. PLoS ONE, 2018;13(5): e0196543.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0196543

10. Manolis AS, Manolis SA, Manolis AA, Manolis TA, Apostolaki N, Melita H: Winter Swimming: Body Hardening and Cardiorespiratory Protection Via Sustainable Acclimation. Curr Sports Med Rep, 2019;18(11):401–415.
https://doi.org/10.1249/JSR.0000000000000653

11. Teległów A, Dąbrowski Z, Marchewka A, Tyka A, Krawczyk M, Głodzik J, et al. The influence of winter swimming on the rheological properties of blood. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, 2014;57: 119–127.
https://doi.org/10.3233/CH-141823

12. Feng J, Zhou C, He C, Li Y, Ye X. Development of an improved wearable device for core body temperature monitoring based on the dual heat flux principle. Physiol Meas, 2017;38(4):652–668.
https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6579/aa5f43

13. Sobiech KA, Gruszka K, Chwałczyńska A, Jędrzejewski G, Zastosowanie termowizji w ocenie zmian temperatury powierzchownej ciała po kąpieli morsów (regular winter swimming) [Application of thermovision to body surface temperature analysis at regular winter swimmers]. PAK, 2014;60(12). (In Polish).
https://doi.org/10.5277/ABB-01051-2017-04

14. Cheshire Jr WP. Thermoregulatory disorders and illness related to heat and cold stress. Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical, 2016; 196: 91–104.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autneu.2016.01.001

15. Alhadad SB, Low ICC, Lee JKW: Thermoregulatory responses to ice slurry ingestion during low and moderate intensity exercises with restrictive heat loss. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2021;24:105–109.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2020.07.002

16. Traczyk WZ. Fizjologia człowieka w zarysie [Human physiology in overview]. Warsaw: PZWL;2015. (In Polish).

17. Stephens JM, Halson S, Miller J, Slater GJ, Askew CD: Cold water immersion for athletic recovery: one size does not fill all. Int J Sport Physiol Perform, 2017;12:2–9.
https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0095

18. Skrzek A, Ciszek A, Nowicka D, Dębiec-Bąk A. Evaluation of changes in selected skin parameters under the influence of extremely low temperature. Cryobiology, 2019;86:19–24.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cryobiol.2019.01.005

19. Gruszka K, Szczuka E, Całkosiński I, Sobiech KA, Chwałczyńska A. Thermovision analysis of surface body temperature changes after thermal stimulation treatments in healthy men. Acta Bioeng Biomech, 2018;20(2):79–87.

20. Hohenauer E, Costello JT, Stoop R, Küng UM, Clarys P, Deliens T, Clijsen R: Cold-water or partial-body cryotherapy? Comparison of physiological responses and recovery following muscle damage. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 2018;28(3):1252–1262.
https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13014
Published
2021-04-30
How to Cite
1.
Bach A, Dziarkowski D, Gawrych S, Yermakova T. The effect of winter swimming on body’s external temperature. Physical education of students. 2021;25(2):85-1. https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2021.0202
Section
Articles