Examination of the perceptions of self-sufficiency and burnout levels of students of the sports science faculty during the COVID-19 pandemic





COVID-19, sports sciences, general perception of self-sufficiency, burnout level, student


Background and Study Aim. To determine the perception of self-sufficiency and burnout levels of students studying in the faculty of sports sciences during the Covid-19 pandemic. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional descriptive-correlational study was performed in the Sports Science Faculty of İnönü University of Turkey which forms the universe of the study. In addition, "Perception of General self-sufficiency" and "Burnout Level Scale" were used in the study. T-test and One-Way ANOVA tests were used to perform the differential analysis and Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between variables. In addition, regression analysis was performed by creating dummy variables in order to predict the dimensions. Results. The students’ general self-sufficiency perception scores were found to be above average and their burnout levels were found to be below average. It was observed that the general self-sufficiency perception scores differed in terms of the class variable, and the burnout level scores differed in terms of class, family income level and studied department variables. In the correlation analysis that was carried out, it was understood that there was a mutually inverse and significant correlation between the dimensions of the scale. With the regression analysis, it was determined that the first-grade level scores were an independent significant predictor for both self-sufficiency and burnout scores, and the lowest income level scores were only an independent predictor for burnout level scores. Conclusions. It can be said that students at the faculty of sports sciences are not overly affected by the Covid-19 Pandemic and the results are as desired. It can be suggested that the perception of self-sufficiency and burnout scores to be correlated and predicted with different variables.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Şakir Tüfekçi, Inonu University

sakir.tufekci@inonu.edu.tr; Sports Management Department, Inonu University; Malatya, Turkey.

Hulusi Böke, Yaşar Öncan Secondary School

yakamoz8386@gmail.com; Ministry of Education, Yaşar Öncan Secondary School; Malatya, Turkey.


1. UNESCO. Global education coalition [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 11]. Available from: https://en.unesco.org/covid19/educationresponse/globalcoalition

2. Chung E, Noor NM, Mathew VN. Are you ready? An Assessment of Online Learning Readiness among University Students. Int J Acad Res Progress Educ Dev. 2020;9(1):301–317.

3. Chung E, Subramaniam G, Dass LC. Online Learning Readiness among University Students in Malaysia amidst COVID-19. Asian J Univ Educ. 2020;16(2):46–58.

4. Bao Y, Sun Y, Meng S, Shi J, Lu L. 2019-nCoV epidemic: Address mental health care to empower society. Lancet. 2020;395(10224).

5. American College Health Association. American College Health Association: National College health assessment II: Reference group executive summary spring 2019 [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2020 Dec 11]. Availablefrom:https://www.acha.org/documents/ncha/NCHAII_sprıng_2019_us_reference_group_executıve_summary.pdf

6. Bayram N, Bilgel N. The prevalence and socio-demographic correlations of depression, anxiety and stress among a group of university students. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2008;43(8):667–72.

7. Karalis T, Raikou N. Teaching at the times of COVID-19: Inferences and Implications for Higher Education Pedagogy. Int J Acad Res Bus Soc Sci. 2020;10(5):479–493.

8. Samantha Kelly B, Rebecca D, Richard A, Gideon James R, Neil G. A systematic, thematic review of social and occupational factors associated with psychological outcomes in healthcare employees during an infectious disease outbreak. J Occup Environ Med. 2018;60(3):248–257.

9. Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, Woodland L, Wessely S, Greenberg N, et al. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 2020;395:912–20.

10. Branko S. The syndrome of burnout, self-image, and anxiety with grammar school students. Horizons Psychol. 2001;10(2):21–32.

11. Maslach C, Jackson SE. The measurement of experienced bumout. J Occup Behav. 1981;2:99–113.
12. Schaufeli WB, Martinez I, Marques-Pinto A, Salanova M, Bakker AB, Marque´s-Pinto A, et al. Burnout and engagement in university students: A cross-national study. J Cross Cult Psychol. 2002;33:464–481.

13. Schaufeli WB, Taris TW. The conceptualization and measurement of burnout: common ground and worlds apart. Work Stress. 2005;19(3):256 62.

14. Meier SF, Schmeck RR. The burned-out college student: a descriptive profile. J Coll Student Pers. 1985;1:63–9.

15. Bandura A. Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. Am Psychol. 1982;37(2):122–147.
16. Bandura A. Regulation of cognitive processes through perceived self-efficacy. Dev Psychol. 1989;25(5):729–735.

17. Betz N, Schifano RS. Evaluation of an intervention to increase realistic self-efficacy and interests in college women. J Vocat Behav. 2000;56:35–52.

18. Fletcher KMM. Evaluating an intervention to build online learning self-efficacy [Doctoral Thesis]. Walden University; 2005.

19. Freedman A. Effects of a multicomponent group intervention on the self-efficacy and academic achievement of at-risk undergraduates [Doctoral Thesis]. The University of Wisconsin-Madison; 1996.

20. Wei Y. The measurement and intervention of college students’ learning self-efficacy. Psychol Sci. 2004;27(4):905–908.

21. YÖK. Basın açıklaması [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 11]. Available from: https://www.yok.gov.tr/Sayfalar/Haberler/2020/universitelerde-uygulanacak-uzaktanegitime-iliskin-aciklama.aspx

22. Eroğlu O, Yıldırım Y, Şahan H. Examination of the relationship between academic self-efficacy and academic motivation levels of students in sports sciences faculty: Akdeniz University example. The Journal of Turkish Sport Science. 2017;1(1):38–47.

23. Şahan H, Uğurlu A, Gülşen B, Varol İ. Determination of self-efficacy beliefs of students studying at Akdeniz University sports sciences faculty. Mediterranean Journal of Sports Science. 2018;1(2):67–73.

24. Ünlü H, Erbaş MK. Academic self-efficacy and professional concerns of physical education teacher candidates. Turkey Journal of Sports Science. 2018;2(1):15–25.

25. Küçük Kılıç S, Ci̇han H, Öncü E. The metacognitive learning strategies, academic self-efficacy and attitudes of physical education teacher candidates towards the teaching profession. Sports Science Journal. 2016;26(3):77–89.

26. Türkekul K, Sarıkabak M. Examining the relationship between the emotional intelligence levels and academic self-efficacy of physical education and sports teacher candidates. International Journal of Current Educational Research. 2019;5(1):52–69.

27. Eroğlu O, Yıldırım Y. Determination of academic self-efficacy levels of physical education and sports teacher candidates. Turkey Journal of Sports Science. 2018;2(2):67–73.

28. Salanova M, Peiró JM, Schaufeli WB. Self-efficacy specificity and burnout among information technology workers: An extension of the job demand-control model. Eur J Work Organ Psychol. 2002;11(1):1–25.

29. Tang CSK, Au WT, Schwarzer R, Schmitz G. Mental health outcomes of job stress among Chinese teachers: Role of stress resource factors and burnout. . J Organ Behav Int J Ind Occup Organ Psychol Behav. 2001;22(8):887–901.

30. Yang HJ, Farn CK. An investigation the factors affecting MIS student burnout in technical-vocational college. Comput Human Behav. 2005;21(6):917–32.

31. Gürbüz S, Şahin F. Research methods in social sciences. Ankara: Seçkin Publishing; 2016.

32. İnönü University. History of sports science faculty [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 20]. Available from: http://www.inonu.edu.tr/tr/sporbilimleri/1609/menu?m=5038

33. Bartlett JE, Kotrlik JW, Higgins C. Organizational research: Determining appropriate sample size for survey research. Inf Technol Learn Perform. 2001;19:43–50.

34. Johnson B, Christensen L. Educational research: quantitative, qualitative and mixed approaches. Demir S, editor. Ankara: Educational Book; 2014.

35. Sherer M, Maddux JE, Mercandante B, Prentice-Dunn S, Jacobs B, Rogers RW. The self-efficacy scale: Construction and validation. Psychol Rep. 1982;51(2):663–71.

36. Chen G, Gully SM, Eden D. Validation of a new general self-efficacy scale. Organ Res Methods [Internet]. 2001 [cited 2019 Apr 11;4(1):62–83. Available from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/109442810141004

37. Karakoç FY, Dönmez L. Basic principles in scale development studies. Medical Education World, 2014;13(40): 39-49.

38. Yıldırım F, İlhan İÖ. Validity and reliability study of the Turkish form of the general self-efficacy scale. Turkish Journal of Psychiatrist [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2019 May 10];21[4]:301–8. Available from: http://www.turkpsikiyatri.com/pdf/c21s4/301-308.pdf

39. Arslan A. Examining the social anxiety and general self-efficacy perceptions of health services vocational school students in terms of various variables. Int e-Journal Educ Stud. 2019;3(6):78–96.
https://https://doi.org/ 10.31458/iejes.524860

40. Özgözgü S, Bektaş M, Arıkan F, Şimşek H. General self-efficacy beliefs and organizational identification perception of school counselors. Elem Educ Online. 2017;16(3).

41. Yurdakul A, Bostancı AB. The relationship between teachers 'views of schools' organizational narcissism and their self-efficacy perceptions. Kırıkkale University Journal of Sos Science. 2016;6(1):109–26.

42. Schaufeli WB, Salanova M, Gonzalez-Roma V, Bakker A. The measurement of burnout and engagement: A confirmatory factor analytic approach. J Happiness Stud. 2002;3:71–92.

43. Schaufeli WB, Martinez I, Marques-Pinto A, Salanova M, Bakker A. Burnout and engagement in university students: A cross-national study. Journal of Cross-cultural Studies. 2002;33:464–81.

44. Çapri B, Gündüz B, Gökçakan Z. Adaptation of the Maslach burnout inventory-student form into Turkish: a validity and reliability study. Çukurova University Journal of Education Faculty. 2011;40(1):134–47.

45. Tuna HM, Olgun N. The role of perceived social support in the state of burnout seen in the relatives of patients caring for stroke patients. Hacettepe University Journal of Nursing Faculty. 2010;17(1):41–52.

46. Aydın D, Akay B, Baydemir S. Burnout in nursing students and influencing factors. Journal of Düzce University Health Science Institute. 2017;1(1):19–23.

47. Büyüköztürk Ş. Scientific research methods. 4th ed. Ankara: Pegem Academy; 2009.

48. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using multivariate statistics. 6th ed. Boston: Pearson; 2013.

49. Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale: NJ Lawrence Earlbaum Associates; 1988.

50. Stevens J. Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1992.

51. Bolat OI. Self-efficacy and burnout relationship: mediating effect of leader-member interaction. Ege Akad Overview. 2011;11(2):255–66.

52. Karahan Ş, Balat GU. Investigation of self-efficacy perceptions and burnout levels of educators working in special education schools. Pamukkale University Journal of Education. 2011;29(29):1–14.

53. Luszczynska A, Scholz U, Schwarzer R. The general selfefficacy scale: multicultural validation studies. J Psychol. 2005;139(5):439–57.

54. Chen G, Goddard T, Casper WJ. Relating general and work-specific selfevaluations and work-related control beliefs to an expanded job attitudes criterion. Appl Psychol An Int Rev. 2004;53(3):349–70.

55. Capri B, Ozkendir OM, Ozkurt B, Karakus F. General self-efficacy beliefs, life satisfaction and burnout of university students. Procedia-Social Behav Sci. 2012;47:968–73.

56. Charkhabi M, Abarghuei MA, Hayati D. The association of academic burnout with self-efficacy and quality of learning experience among Iranian students. Springerplus. 2013;2(1):677.

57. Böke H, Doğan A, Kartal M. Researching the self-efficacy levels of individuals attending youth centers. J Glob Sport Educ Res. 2019;2(1):45–56.

58. Cherniss C. Role of professional self-efficacy in the etiology and amelioration of burnout. In: Shaufeli W, Maslach C, Marek T, editors. Professional burnout: recent development in theory and research. Washington DC: Taylor and Francis; 1993. p. 49–135.

59. Hallsten L. Burning out: a framework. In: Schaufel i W, Maslach C, Marek T, editors. Professional burnout Recent developments in theory and research. Washington, DC: Taylor and Francis; 1993.

60. Hobfoll S, Freedy J. Conservation of resource: a general stress theory applied to burnout. In: Schanfeli W, Maslach C, Marek T, editors. Professional burnout: recent developments in theory and research. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis; 1993. p. 115–129.

61. Tahmassian K, Moghadam NJ. Relationship between self-efficacy and symptoms of anxiety, depression, worry and social avoidance in a normal sample of students. Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2011;5(2):91.

62. Honicke T, Broadbent J. The influence of academic self-efficacy on academic performance: A systematic review. Educ Res Rev. 2016;17:63–84.

63. Alemany-Arrebola I, Rojas-Ruiz G, Granda-Vera J, Mingorance-Estrada ÁC. Influence of COVID-19 on the perception of academic self-efficacy, state anxiety, and trait anxiety in college students. Front Psychol. 2020;11.

64. Al-Qahtani AM, Ibrahim HA, Elgzar WT. Self-Efficacy at time of COVID-19 pandemic among Najran University students, kingdom of saudi arabia. Sylwan. 2020;164(8).

65. Castella K De, Platow, Michael J, Tamir M, Gross JJ. Beliefs about emotion: implications for avoidance-based emotion regulation and psychological health. Cogn Emot. 2017;32:773–795.

66. Bandura A. The role of self-efficacy in goal-based motivation. In: Locke EA, Latham GP, editors. New Developments in Goal Setting and Task Performance. Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group; 2013. p. 147–157.

67. Galla BM, Wood JJ. Emotional self-efficacy moderates anxiety-related impairments in math performance in elementary school-age youth. Pers Indiv Differ. 2012;52:118–122.

68. Wang X, Hegde S, Son C, Keller B, Smith A, Sasangohar F. Investigating mental health of US college students during the COVID-19 pandemic: Cross-sectional survey study. J Med Internet Res. 2020;22(9): e22817.

69. Xiao F, Tang M, Zheng X, Liu Y, Li X, Shan H. Evidence for gastrointestinal infection of SARS-CoV-2. Gastroenterology. 2020;158(6):1831–3.

70. Kmietowicz Z. Covid-19:“There is no alternative, ” says Johnson, announcing new restrictions for England. BMJ. 2020;371:1–2.




How to Cite

Tüfekçi Şakir, Böke H. Examination of the perceptions of self-sufficiency and burnout levels of students of the sports science faculty during the COVID-19 pandemic. Physical Education of Students. 2021;25(1):28-35. https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2021.0104

Abstract views: 760 / PDF downloads: 506