Assessment of the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on emotional and nutritional status of university athletes




athlete, behavior, COVID-19, emotion, nutrition


Background and Study Aim. The current study was carried out to analyze the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the emotional state and nutritional behavior of university athletes. Material and Methods. This research was carried out during the first wave of COVID-19 in Turkey. A total of 334 (162 female and 172 male) athletes who are undergraduate students in the faculties of sports sciences of universities participated in the study. Their mean age was 21.46 ± 3.7. The Emotional Eating Scale (EES) was used to determine the nutritional behavior of the participants and The Profile of Mood States (POMS) scale was used to determine their emotional state. The Chi-square and Cross-tabulation tests were used for the statistical analysis of categorical variables. Mann Whitney U test was used for the analysis of continuous variables, and Spearman Sequence Correlation test protocols were used for correlation analysis. Results. The results of the statistical analysis revealed that there was a significant increase in the amount of fluid consumption of elite athletes. There was a significant relationship between negative mood and emotional eating sub-assessment (p <0.05). However, it was found that there was no significant difference between total and subscale scores of amateur and elite athletes (p >0.05). Conclusion. As a result of the research, it was seen that elite and amateur athletes did not have a significant difference in emotional eating and mood status, except for the amount of fluid consumption. The increase in negative emotions of university athletes is an important factor that increased their emotional eating behavior.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Gökmen Özen, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University; Department of Physical Education and Sports Teaching, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University; Çanakkale, Turkey.

Günay Eskici, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University; Department of Coaching Education, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University; Çanakkale, Turkey.

Hüseyin Ö. Yurdakul, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University; Department of Physical Education and Sports Teaching, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University; Çanakkale, Turkey.

Hürmüz Koç, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University; Department of Coaching Education, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University; Çanakkale, Turkey.


1. World Health Organization (a). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. [document on the Internet] WHO: 2020 March 19 [cited 2020 May 6]. Available from:

2. World Health Organization (b). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Reports-101. [document on the Internet]. WHO: 2020 April 30 [cited on 6 May, 2020]. Available from:

3. Hellewell J, Abbott S, Gimma A, et al. Feasibility of controlling COVID-19 outbreaks by isolation of cases and contacts. Lancet Glob Heal. 2020;8(4):e488–e496.

4. Anderson RM, Heesterbeek H, Klinkenberg D, Hollingsworth TD. How will country-based mitigation measures influence the course of the COVID-19 epidemic? Lancet, 2020;395(10228):931–934.

5. Halabchi F, Ahmadinejad Z, Selk-Ghaffari M. Covid-19 epidemic: Exercise or not to exercise; that is the question. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine. 2020;11(1):1–3.

6. Lippi G, Henry BM, Sanchis-Gomar F. Physical inactivity and cardiovascular disease at the time of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. 2020;27(9):906–908.

7. Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, et al. Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(5):1729.

8. Eskici G. Covid-19 pandemia: Nutrition recommendations for quarantine. Anadolu Kliniği Tıp Bilimleri Dergisi-Anatol Clin, 2020;25(1):124–129.

9. Figley CR. Foreword. In International Handbook of Traumatic Stress Syndromes (ed. Wilson, J. P. and Raphael, B.), pp. XVII–XIX. New York: Plenum Press; 1993.

10. Roccella M. Children and coronavirus Infection (Covid-19): What to tell children to avoid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Open Pediatric Medicine Journal, 2020;10(1):1–2.

11. McNair DM, Lorr M, Droppleman, LF. Profile of Mood States. Educational and Industrial Testing Service. San Diego: CA; 1971.

12. Selvi Y, Gulec M, Aydin A, Besiroglu L. Psychometric evaluation of the Turkish language version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Journal of Mood Disorders. 2011;1(4):152–61.

13. Bilgen SŞ. Türkçe Duygusal Yeme Ölçeği geliştirilmesi geçerlilik ve güvenirliği çalışması [Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the Emotional Eating Questionnaire] (Master Thesis). Üsküdar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul; 2018. (In Turkish).

14. Beedie C, Terry PC, Lane AM. The profile of mood states and athletic performance: Two meta-analyses. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 2000;12(1):49–68.

15. Benjamin CL, Curtis RM, Huggins RA, et al. Sleep dysfunction and mood in collegiate soccer athletes. Sports Health. 2020;12(3):234–240.

16. Graham SM, Martindal RJJ, McKinley M, Connaboy C, Andronikos G, Susmarski A. The examination of mental toughness, sleep, mood and injury rates in an Arctic ultra-marathon. Eur J Sport Sci, 2020;10:1–7.

17. Ahmadpoor P, Rostaing L. Why the immune system fails to mount an adaptive immune response to a Covid -19 infection. Transpl Int. 2020; 33: 824–825.

18. Chen P, Mao L, Nassis GP, Harmer P, Ainsworth BE. Li F. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): The need to maintain regular physical activity while taking precautions. J Sport Health Sci, 2020;9(2):103–104.

19. Ahmed MZ, Ahmed O, Aibao, Z. Epidemic of COVID-19 in China and associated psychological problems. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020;51(102092): 1–7.

20. Hiremath P, Kowshik S, Manjunath M. COVID 19: Impact of lock-down on mental health and tips to overcome. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020;51:102088.

21. HuangY, Zhao N. Generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and sleep quality during COVID-19 outbreak in China: A Web-based cross-sectional survey. Psychiatry Res, 2020;288:112954.

22. Li S, Wang Y, Xue J, Zhao N, Zhu T. The impact of COVID-19 epidemic declaration on psychological consequences: A study on active weibo users. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(6):2032.

23. Stirling AE, Kerr GA. Perfectionism and mood states among recreational and elite athletes. Athletic Insight, 2006;8(4):13–27.

24. Renger RA. Review of the profile of mood states (POMS) in the prediction of athletic success, J Appl Sport Psychol. 1993;5(1):78–84.

25. Mathisen TF, Sundgot-Borgen J. Mental health symptoms related to body shape idealization in female fitness physique athletes. Sports (Basel), 2019;147(11):E236.

26. Lazarevich I, Irigoyen Camacho ME, Velázquez-Alva MDC, Zepeda M. Relationship among obesity, depression, and emotional eating in young adults. Appetite. 2016;1(107):639–644.

27. Costarelli V, Stamou D. Emotional intelligence, body image and disordered eating attitudes in combat sport athletes. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness. 2009;7(2):104–111.

28. Serin Y, Şanlıer N. Emotional eating, the factors that affect food intake, and basic approaches to nursing care of patients with eating disorders. J Psychiatric Nurs. 2018;9:135–146.

29. Moynihan AB, van Tilburg WA, Igou ER, Wisman A, Donnelly AE, Mulcaire JB. Eaten up by boredom: consuming food to escape awareness of the bored self. Front Psychol, 2015;1(6):369.

30. Evers C, Adriaanse M, de Ridder DT, de Witt Huberts JC. Good mood food. Positive emotion as a neglected trigger for food intake. Appetite. 2013;68:1–7.

31. Muscogiuri G, Barrea L, Savastano S, Colao A. Nutritional recommendations for COVID-19 quarantine. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2020;14:1–2.

32. Özenoğlu A. Relationship between mood, food and nutrition. ACU Sağlık Bil Derg. 2018;9(4):357-365.

33. Fink HH, Mikesky AE. Practical Applications in Sports Nutrition. Fifth Edition. Jones and Bartlett Learning, USA; 2018.

34. Arslan M. The relationship between vitamin D and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sağlık Akademisi Kastamonu. 2020;5(1):65–77.

35. Akpınar DD, Türköz BK. Probiotic-human immune system interactions. Food and Health. 2019;5:265–280.

36. Lee IC, Tomita S, Kleerebezem M, Bron PA. The quest for probiotic effector molecules-unraveling strain specificity at the molecular level. Pharmacol Res, 2013;69(1):61–74.

37. Chandra RK. Effect of vitamin and trace-element supplementation on immune responses and infection in elderly subjects. Lancet, 1992;340:1124–1127.

38. Kalantar-Zadeh, K, Moore LW. Impact of nutrition and diet on COVID-19 infection and implications for kidney health and kidney disease management. J Ren Nutr. 2020;30(3):179–181.

39. Sikora-Klak J, Narvy SJ, Yang J, Makhni E, Kharrazi FD, Mehran N. The Effect of Abnormal Vitamin D Levels in Athletes. Perm J. 2018;22:17–216.

40. Pritchett K, Pritchett RC, Stark L, Broad E, LaCroix M. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on 25(OH)D status in elite athletes with spinal cord injury. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2019;29(1):18–23.




How to Cite

Özen G, Eskici G, Yurdakul H Ö., Koç H. Assessment of the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on emotional and nutritional status of university athletes. Physical Education of Students. 2021;25(1):43-50.

Abstract views: 821 / PDF downloads: 589