Mapping the intellectual and conceptual structure of physical education research: Direct citation analysis

Keywords: physical education, bibliometrics, science mapping, direct citation analysis


Background and Study Aim. The aim of the study is to identify and explore the intellectual and conceptual structure of physical education research. It is focused around the following study questions: (1) What are the most influential publications within the research field? (2) What are the research fronts in physical education studies? Material and Methods. As a result of the research sampling process, the 10,334 publications indexed in the Scopus database were selected by the title search for the phrase ‘physical education’. Citation analysis, one of science mapping methods, was employed to conduct the analysis. The study process and the visualization of its findings were supported by the VOSviewer software. In the process of citation analysis, we used the following weight attributes: (1) custom weight attributes: the number of citations received by a document and the normalized of citations for a document, and (2) standard weight attributes: the number of citation links. Results. Firstly, the most prominent references have been pointed out and discussed. The study of the effects of the SPARK physical education program in regard to physical activity of elementary school pupils by Sallis et al. (1997) is found to be the most cited publication in the physical education research field. The systematic literature review and meta-analysis of research on application of self-determination theory in the physical education context by Vasconellos et al. (2020) is recognized as the publication of the highest value of the normalized number of citations. The application of self-determination theory of motivation in physical education is the topic attracting a lot of attention of the top cited publications in the field. The prominent and central position of these references is confirmed by the analysis of citation links. Secondly, the following research fronts in physical education studies have been identified: (1) motivation in physical education, (2) physical education programmes, (3) development of physical education, (4) self-determination in physical education, (5) physical education and students’ academic achievement, (6) support of physical activity autonomy, (7) gender and physical education, and (8) long-term effects of physical education. Combining the research fronts identified with co-word analysis and direct citation analysis, the two-dimensional matrix mapping the conceptual structure of the physical education research field has been developed. The matrix categorizes publications according to their themes and the age of students / the levels of education, which are the object of the analysed studies. Conclusions. The study contributes mainly to development of theory through mapping the scientific output within the physical education research field. Identification of core references provides valuable information for the scholars cultivating the field about the most recognized classical works receiving the highest number of citations and ‘emerging stars’ of the highest normalized number of citations. Such information is crucial for any theoretical reviews regarding the issues of physical education. Discovering research fronts points out the themes of the highest prominence and may be an indication for searching prospective research topics by authors. Developing the matrix to be used for mapping the conceptual structure of the research field is another contribution of the study.


Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 86 | PDF Downloads: 33 |

Author Biographies

Andrzej Lis, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun; Faculty of Economic Sciences and Management, Nicolaus Copernicus University; ul. Gagarina 13a, 87-100, Toruń, Poland.
Mateusz Tomanek, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun; Faculty of Economic Sciences and Management, Nicolaus Copernicus University; ul. Gagarina 13a, 87-100, Toruń, Poland.


1. Kirk D. Physical Education Futures. London: Routledge; 2009.

2. Tomanek M, Lis A. Managing information on the physical education research field: Bibliometric analysis. Phys Educ Students, 2020;24:213–26.

3. Fan B, Gan F. Bibliometric analysis of articles on physical education idea published from 2005 to 2009. Geomatics Inf Sci Wuhan Univ, 2010;35:193–5.

4. Hinojo-Lucena FJ, Aznar-Díaz I, Cáceres-Reche MP, Romero-Rodríguez JM. Análisis cientimétrico de las publicaciones indexadas en journal citation reports sobre educación física. Movimento, 2019;25.

5. Zhu J, Liu W. A tale of two databases: The use of Web of Science and Scopus in academic papers. Scientometrics, 2020;123:321–35.

6. Aghaei Chadegani A, Salehi H, Md Yunus MM, Farhadi H, Fooladi M, Farhadi M, et al. A comparison between two main academic literature collections: Web of Science and Scopus databases. Asian Soc Sci, 2013;9:18–26.

7. He Q. Knowledge discovery through co-word analysis. Libr Trends, 1999;48:133–59.

8. Zupic I, Čater T. Bibliometric methods in management and organization. Organ Res Methods, 2015;18:429–72.

9. Smith LC. Citation analysis. Libr Trends, 1981;30:83–106.

10. Boyack KW, Klavans R. Co-citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, and direct citation: Which citation approach represents the research front most accurately? J Am Soc Inf Sci Technol, 2010;61:2389–404.

11. Shibata N, Kajikawa Y, Takeda Y, Matsushima K. Detecting emerging research fronts based on topological measures in citation networks of scientific publications. Technovation, 2008;28:758–75.

12. van Eck NJ, Waltman L. Software survey: VOSviewer, a computer program for bibliometric mapping. Scientometrics, 2010;84:523–38.

13. van Eck NJ, Waltman L. VOSviewer Manual. 2020.

14. Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Alcaraz JE, Kolody B, Faucette N, Hovell MF. The effects of a 2-year physical education program (SPARK) on physical activity and fitness in elementary school students. Am J Public Health, 1997;87:1328–34.

15. Vasconcellos D, Parker PD, Hilland T, Cinelli R, Owen KB, Kapsal N, et al. Self-determination theory applied to physical education: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Educ Psychol, 2020;112:1444–69.

16. Ntoumanis N. A self-determination approach to the understanding of motivation in physical education. Br J Educ Psychol, 2001;71:225–42.

17. Standage M, Duda JL, Ntoumanis N. A test of self-determination theory in school physical education. Br J Educ Psychol, 2005;75:411–33.

18. D’elia F. The training of physical education teacher in primary school. J Hum Sport Exerc, 2019;14:S100–4.

19. Standage M, Duda JL, Ntoumanis N. A model of contextual motivation in physical education: Using constructs from self-determination and achievement goal theories to predict physical activity intentions. J Educ Psychol, 2003;95:97–110.

20. Rasberry CN, Lee SM, Robin L, Laris BA, Russell LA, Coyle KK, et al. The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance: A systematic review of the literature. Prev Med (Baltim), 2011;52.

21. Ntoumanis N. A prospective study of participation in optional school physical education using a self-determination theory framework. J Educ Psychol, 2005;97:444–53.

22. Sallis JF. Physical education’s role in public health. Res Q Exerc Sport, 1991;62:124–37.

23. Henry FM. The academic discipline of physical education. Quest, 1978;29:13–29.

24. Goudas M, Biddle S, Fox K. Perceived locus of causality, goal orientations, and perceived competence in school physical education classes. Br J Educ Psychol, 1994;64:453–63.

25. Trudeau F, Shephard RJ. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 2008;5.

26. Corder WO. Effects of physical education on the intellectual, physical, and social development of educable mentally retarded boys. Except Child, 1966;32:357–64.

27. Staiano AE, Calvert SL. Exergames for physical education courses: Physical, social, and cognitive benefits. Child Dev Perspect, 2011;5:93–8.

28. Bailey R. Physical education and sport in schools: A review of benefits and outcomes. J Sch Health, 2006;76:397–401.

29. Wilson WJ, Haegele JA, Kelly LE. Revisiting the narrative about least restrictive environment in physical education. Quest, 2020;72:19–32.

30. Bailey R, Armour K, Kirk D, Jess M, Pickup I, Sandford R. The educational benefits claimed for physical education and school sport: An academic review. Res Pap Educ, 2009;24:1–27.

31. Coe DP, Pivarnik JM, Womack CJ, Reeves MJ, Malina RM. Effect of physical education and activity levels on academic achievement in children. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2006;38:1515–9.

32. Kirk D. Educational value and models-based practice in physical education. Educ Philos Theory, 2013;45:973–86.

33. Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Beets MW, Beighle A, Erwin H, Lee S. Physical education’s role in public health: Steps forward and backward over 20 years and HOPE for the future. Res Q Exerc Sport, 2012;83:125–35.

34. Boiché JCS, Sarrazin PG, Grouzet FME, Pelletier LG, Chanal JP. Students’ motivational profiles and achievement outcomes in physical education: A self-determination perspective. J Educ Psychol, 2008;100:688–701.

35. Cheon SH, Reeve J, Moon IS. Experimentally based, longitudinally designed, teacher-focused intervention to help physical education teachers be more autonomy supportive toward their students. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 2012;34:365–96.

36. Cox AE, Smith AL, Williams L. Change in physical education motivation and physical activity behavior during middle school. J Adolesc Heal, 2008;43:506–13.

37. Cox A, Williams L. The roles of perceived teacher support, motivational climate, and psychological need satisfaction in students’ physical education motivation. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 2008;30:222–39.

38. Ferrer-Caja E, Weiss MR. Predictors of intrinsic motivation among adolescent students in physical education. Res Q Exerc Sport, 2000;71:267–79.

39. Guan J, Xiang P, McBride R, Bruene A. Achievement goals, social goals, and students’ reported persistence and effort in high school physical education. J Teach Phys Educ, 2006;25:58–74.

40. Haerens L, Kirk D, Cardon G, de Bourdeaudhuij I, Vansteenkiste M. Motivational profiles for secondary school physical education and its relationship to the adoption of a physically active lifestyle among university students. Eur Phys Educ Rev, 2010;16:117–39.

41. Haerens L, Aelterman N, Van den Berghe L, De Meyer J, Soenens B, Vansteenkiste M. Observing physical education teachers’ need-supportive interactions in classroom settings. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 2013;35:3–17.

42. Haerens L, Aelterman N, Vansteenkiste M, Soenens B, Van Petegem S. Do perceived autonomy-supportive and controlling teaching relate to physical education students’ motivational experiences through unique pathways? Distinguishing between the bright and dark side of motivation. Psychol Sport Exerc, 2015;16:26–36.

43. Mouratidis A, Vansteenkiste M, Lens W, Sideridis G. The motivating role of positive feedback in sport and physical education: Evidence for a motivational model. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 2008;30:240–58.

44. Murcia JAM, Coll DGC, Garzón MC. Preliminary validation in Spanish of a scale designed to measure motivation in physical education classes: The perceived locus of causality (PLOC) scale. Span J Psychol, 2009;12:327–37.

45. Ntoumanis N. Motivational clusters in a sample of British physical education classes. Psychol Sport Exerc, 2002;3:177–94.

46. Ntoumanis N, Pensgaard AM, Martin C, Pipe K. An idiographic analysis of amotivation in compulsory school physical education. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 2004;26:197–214.

47. Ntoumanis N, Standage M. Motivation in physical education classes: A self-determination theory perspective. Theory Res Educ, 2009;7:194–202.

48. Standage M, Duda JL, Ntoumanis N. Students’ motivational processes and their relationship to teacher ratings in school physical education: A self-determination theory approach. Res Q Exerc Sport, 2006;77:100–10.

49. Taylor IM, Ntoumanis N. Teacher motivational strategies and student self-determination in physical education. J Educ Psychol, 2007;99:747–60.

50. Taylor IM, Ntoumanis N, Standage M, Spray CM. Motivational predictors of physical education students’ effort, exercise intentions, and leisure-time physical activity: A multilevel linear growth analysis. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 2010;32:99–120.

51. Tessier D, Sarrazin P, Ntoumanis N. The effect of an intervention to improve newly qualified teachers’ interpersonal style, students motivation and psychological need satisfaction in sport-based physical education. Contemp Educ Psychol, 2010;35:242–53.

52. Van den Berghe L, Vansteenkiste M, Cardon G, Kirk D, Haerens L. Research on self-determination in physical education: Key findings and proposals for future research. Phys Educ Sport Pedagog, 2014;19:97–121.

53. Belsky J, Booth C, Bradley R, Brownell CA, Campbell SB, Clarke-Stewart A, et al. Frequency and intensity of activity of third-grade children in physical education. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2003;157:185–90.

54. Burgeson CR, Wechsler H, Brener ND, Young JC, Spain CG. Physical education and activity: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000. J Sch Health, 2001;71:279–93.

55. Cawleya J, Meyerhoefer C, Newhouse D. The impact of state physical education requirements on youth physical activity and overweight. Health Econ, 2007;16:1287–301.

56. Datar A, Sturm R. Physical education in elementary school and body mass index: Evidence from the early childhood longitudinal study. Am J Public Health, 2004;94:1501–6.

57. Fairclough S, Stratton G. Physical activity levels in middle and high school physical education: A review. Pediatr Exerc Sci, 2005;17:217–36.

58. Hills AP, Dengel DR, Lubans DR. Supporting public health priorities: Recommendations for physical education and physical activity promotion in schools. Prog Cardiovasc Dis, 2015;57:368–74.

59. Lee SM, Burgeson CR, Fulton JE, Spain CG. Physical education and physical activity: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006. J Sch Health, 2007;77:435–63.

60. Lonsdale C, Rosenkranz RR, Peralta LR, Bennie A, Fahey P, Lubans DR. A systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in school physical education lessons. Prev Med (Baltim), 2013;56:152–61.

61. Marshall J, Hardman K. The state and status of physical education in schools in international context. Eur Phys Educ Rev, 2000;6:203–29.

62. McKenzie TL, Feldman H, Woods SE, Romero KA, Dahlstrom V, Stone EJ, et al. Children activity levels and lesson context during third-grade physical education. Res Q Exerc Sport, 1995;66:184–93.

63. McKenzie TL, Nader PR, Strikmiller PK, Yang M, Stone EJ, Perry CL, et al. School physical education: Effect of the child and adolescent trial for cardiovascular health. Prev Med (Baltim), 1996;25:423–31.

64. McKenzie TL, Sallis JF, Prochaska JJ, Conway TL, Marshall SJ, Rosengard P. Evaluation of a two-year middle-school physical education intervention: M-SPAN. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2004;36:1382–8.

65. Mckenzie TL, Lounsbery MAF. School physical education: The pill not taken. Am J Lifestyle Med, 2009;3:219–25.

66. Morgan PJ, Hansen V. Classroom teachers’ perceptions of the impact of barriers to teaching physical education on the quality of physical education programs. Res Q Exerc Sport, 2008;79:506–16.

67. Nettlefold L, McKay HA, Warburton DER, McGuire KA, Bredin SSD, Naylor PJ. The challenge of low physical activity during the school day: At recess, lunch and in physical education. Br J Sports Med, 2011;45:813–9.

68. Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Alcaraz JE, Kolody B, Hovell MF, Nader PR. Project SPARK: Effects of physical education on adiposity in children. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1993;699:127–36.

69. Trudeau F, Laurencelle L, Tremblay J, Rajic M, Shephard RJ. Daily primary school physical education: Effects on physical activity during adult life. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1999;31:111–7.

70. Van Beurden E, Barnett LM, Zask A, Dietrich UC, Brooks LO, Beard J. Can we skill and activate children through primary school physical education lessons? “Move it Groove it” - A collaborative health promotion intervention. Prev Med (Baltim), 2003;36:493–501.

71. Armour KM, Yelling MR. Continuing professional development for experienced physical education teachers: Towards effective provision. Sport Educ Soc, 2004;9:95–114.

72. Armour KM, Yelling M. Effective professional development for physical education teachers: The role of informal, collaborative learning. J Teach Phys Educ, 2007;26:177–200.

73. Bailey R. Evaluating the relationship between physical education, sport and social inclusion. Educ Rev, 2005;57:71–90.

74. Gard M, Wright J. Managing uncertainty: Obesity discourses and physical education in a risk society. Stud Philos Educ, 2001;20:535–49.

75. Gorely T, Holroyd R, Kirk D. Muscularity, the habitus and the social construction of gender: Towards a gender-relevant physical education. Br J Sociol Educ, 2003;24:429–48.

76. Kirk D, Colquhoun D. Healthism and physical education. Br J Sociol Educ, 1989;10:417–34.

77. Kirk D, Macdonald D. Situated learning in physical education. J Teach Phys Educ, 1998;17:376–87.

78. Kirk D. Physical culture, physical education and relational analysis. Sport Educ Soc, 1999;4:63–73.

79. Kirk D. The “obesity crisis” and school physical education. Sport Educ Soc, 2006;11:121–33.

80. Light R. Complex learning theory-its epistemology and its assumptions about learning: Implications for physical education. J Teach Phys Educ, 2008;27:21–37.

81. Penney D, Chandler T. Physical education: What future(s)? Sport Educ Soc, 2000;5:71–87.

82. Siedentop D. Content knowledge for physical education. J Teach Phys Educ 2002;21:368–77.

83. Digelidis N, Papaioannou A, Laparidis K, Christodoulidis T. A one-year intervention in 7th grade physical education classes aiming to change motivational climate and attitudes towards exercise. Psychol Sport Exerc, 2003;4:195–210.

84. Duda JL. Maximizing motivation in sport and physical education among children and adolescents: The case for greater task involvement. Quest, 1996;48:290–302.

85. Goudas M, Biddle S. Perceived motivational climate and intrinsic motivation in school physical education classes. Eur J Psychol Educ, 1994;9:241–50.

86. Papaioannou A. Development of a questionnaire to measure achievement orientations in physical education. Res Q Exerc Sport, 1994;65:11–20.

87. Papaioannou A, Marsh HW, Theodorakis Y. A multilevel approach to motivational climate in physical education and sport settings: An individual or a group level construct? J Sport Exerc Psychol, 2004;26:90–118.

88. Solmon MA. Impact of motivational climate on students’ behaviors and perceptions in a physical education setting. J Educ Psychol, 1996;88:731–8.

89. Standage M, Treasure DC. Relationship among achievement goal orientations and multidimensional situational motivation in physical education. Br J Educ Psychol, 2002;72:87–103.

90. Standage M, Duda JL, Ntoumanis N. Predicting motivational regulations in physical education: The interplay between dispositional goal orientations, motivational climate and perceived competence. J Sports Sci, 2003;21:631–47.

91. Taylor IM, Ntoumanis N, Standage M. A self-determination theory approach to understanding the antecedents of teachers’ motivational strategies in physical education. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 2008;30:75–94.

92. Treasure DC, Roberts GC. Applications of achievement goal theory to physical education: Implications for enhancing motivation. Quest, 1995;47:475–89.

93. Wallhead TL, Ntoumanis N. Effects of a sport education intervention on students’ motivational responses in physical education. J Teach Phys Educ, 2004;23:4–18.

94. Wang CKJ, Chatzisarantis NLD, Spray CM, Biddle SJH. Achievement goal profiles in school physical education: Differences in self-determination, sport ability beliefs, and physical activity. Br J Educ Psychol, 2002;72:433–45.

95. Wang CKJ, Biddle SJH, Elliot AJ. The 2×2 achievement goal framework in a physical education context. Psychol Sport Exerc, 2007;8:147–68.

96. Ardoy DN, Fernández-Rodríguez JM, Jiménez-Pavón D, Castillo R, Ruiz JR, Ortega FB. A physical education trial improves adolescents’ cognitive performance and academic achievement: The EDUFIT study. Scand J Med Sci Sport, 2014;24.

97. Carlson SA, Fulton JE, Lee SM, Maynard LM, Brown DR, Kohl HW, et al. Physical education and academic achievement in elementary school: Data from the early childhood longitudinal study. Am J Public Health, 2008;98:721–7.

98. Fairclough S, Stratton G. “Physical education makes you fit and healthy”. Physical education’s contribution to young people’s physical activity levels. Health Educ Res, 2005;20:14–23.

99. Gibbons SL, Ebbeck V, Weiss MR. Fair Play for Kids: Effects on the moral development of children in physical education. Res Q Exerc Sport, 1995;66:247–55.

100. Sallis JF, Lewis M, McKenzie TL, Kolody B, Marshall S, Rosengard P. Effects of health-related physical education on academic achievement: Project SPARK. Res Q Exerc Sport, 1999;70:127–34.

101. Chatzisarantis NLD, Hagger MS, Biddle SJH, Smith B, Wang JCK. A meta-analysis of perceived locus of causality in exercise, sport, and physical education contexts. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 2003;25:284–306.

102. Hagger MS, Culverhouse T, Chatzisarantis NLD, Biddle SJH. The processes by which perceived autonomy support in physical education promotes leisure-time physical activity intentions and behavior: A trans-contextual model. J Educ Psychol, 2003;95:784–95.

103. Hagger MS, Barkoukis V, Chatzisarantis NLD, John Wang CK, Baranowski J. Perceived autonomy support in physical education and leisure-time physical activity: A cross-cultural evaluation of the trans-contextual model. J Educ Psychol, 2005;97:376–90.

104. Hagger M, Chatzisarantis NLD, Hein V, Soós I, Karsai I, Lintunen T, et al. Teacher, peer and parent autonomy support in physical education and leisure-time physical activity: A trans-contextual model of motivation in four nations. Psychol Heal, 2009;24:689–711.

105. Lim BSC, Wang CKJ. Perceived autonomy support, behavioural regulations in physical education and physical activity intention. Psychol Sport Exerc, 2009;10:52–60.

106. Lonsdale C, Sabiston CM, Raedeke TD, Ha ASC, Sum RKW. Self-determined motivation and students’ physical activity during structured physical education lessons and free choice periods. Prev Med (Baltim), 2009;48:69–73.

107. Standage M, Gillison FB, Ntoumanis N, Treasure DC. Predicting students’ physical activity and health-related well-being: A prospective cross-domain investigation of motivation across school physical education and exercise settings. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 2012;34:37–60.

108. Azzarito L, Solomon MA. A reconceptualization of physical education: The intersection of gender/race/social class. Sport Educ Soc, 2005;10:25–47.

109. Block ME, Obrusnikova I. Inclusion in physical education: A review of the literature from 1995-2005. Adapt Phys Act Q, 2007;24:103–24.

110. Cockburn C, Clarke G. “Everybody’s looking at you!”: Girls negotiating the “femininity deficit” they incur in physical education. Womens Stud Int Forum, 2002;25:651–65.

111. Flintoff A, Fitzgerald H, Scraton S. The challenges of intersectionality: Researching difference in physical education. Int Stud Sociol Educ, 2008;18:73–85.

112. Garrett R. Negotiating a physical identity: Girls, bodies and physical education. Sport Educ Soc, 2004;9:223–37.

113. Goodwin DL, Watkinson EJ. Inclusive physical education from the perspective of students with physical disabilities. Adapt Phys Act Q, 2000;17:144–60.

114. McKenzie TL, Marshall SJ, Sallis JF, Conway TL. Student activity levels, lesson context, and teacher behavior during middle school physical education. Res Q Exerc Sport, 2000;71:249–59.

115. Curtner-Smith MD. The more things change the more they stay the same: Factors influencing teachers’ interpretations and delivery of national curriculum physical education. Sport Educ Soc, 1999;4:75–97.

116. Curtner-Smith MD. The occupational socialization of a first-year physical eductaion teacher with a teaching orientation. Sport Educ Soc, 2001;6:81–105.

117. Enright E, O’Sullivan M. “Can I do it in my pyjamas?” Negotiating a physical education curriculum with teenage girls. Eur Phys Educ Rev, 2010;16:203–22.

118. Flintoff A, Scraton S. Stepping into active leisure? Young women’s perceptions of active lifestyles and their experiences of school physical education. Sport Educ Soc, 2001;6:5–21.

119. Kirk D. Physical education, youth sport and lifelong participation: The importance of early learning experiences. Eur Phys Educ Rev, 2005;11:239–55.

120. McKenzie TL, Sallis JF, Kolody B, Faucette FN. Long-term effects of a physical education curriculum and staff development program: SPARK. Res Q Exerc Sport, 1997;68:280–91.

121. Parker A. The construction of masculinity within boys’ physical education. Gend Educ, 1996;8:141–58.
122. Ames C. Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. J Educ Psychol, 1992;84:261–71.

123. Small H. Co‐citation in the scientific literature: A new measure of the relationship between two documents. J Am Soc Inf Sci, 1973;24:265–9.

124. Kessler MM. Bibliographic coupling between scientific papers. Am Doc, 1963;14:10–25.

125. Tranfield D, Denyer D, Smart P. Towards a methodology for developing evidence-informed management knowledge by means of systematic review. Br J Manag, 2003;14:207–22.

126. Booth A, Sutton A, Papaioannou D. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. London: Sage; 2012.
How to Cite
Lis A, Tomanek M. Mapping the intellectual and conceptual structure of physical education research: Direct citation analysis. Physical education of students. 2021;25(2):67-4.