Effect of depression among taekwondo students and its relationship with negative events due to COVID-19

Keywords: negative events, depression, Taekwondo, COVID-19, university students

Abstract

Background and Study Aim. The aim of this research was to examine The effect of depression among taekwondo students and its relationship with negative events due to COVID-19 in Mazandaran University. Material and Methods. This research was conducted on the appropriate sample of 116 Taekwondo students from Mazandaran university, being 18-24 years old. The applied measure instruments were - Adolescent Perceived Events Scale, Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Confrontation with Stressing Situation Questionnaire, Social Support Questionnaire, Children's Depression Rating Scale-demonstrated satisfactory reliability. The data was processed using descriptive parameters, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and hierarchy regression analysis & SPSS23 software. Results. Achieved results didn’t show that predictor variables (common automatic thoughts, the sense of general self-efficiency, confrontation strategies and perceived support of family, coach and team peers) are the cause of the common negative events due to COVID-19 and depression relations of Taekwondo students in the middle period of adolescence. Conclusions.  On contrary, the results have emphasized the fact that mutual relations of common negative events and depression of Taekwondo students, in this young category, can be explained using independent variables (unwilling unconscious negative thoughts, confrontation focused on feelings, as well as support of family, coach and team peers).

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 74 | PDF Downloads: 47 |

Author Biographies

Mohammadbagher Forghani Ozrudi, Department of Physical Education, Babol Branch, Islamic Azad University
mohammadbagher.forghani@gmail.com; Young Researchers and Elite Club, Department of Physical Education, Babol Branch, Islamic Azad University; Babol, Iran.
Somayeh Faghanpour
Faghanpours@yahoo.com; Young Researchers and Elite Club, Department of Physical Education, Babol Branch, Islamic Azad University; Babol, Iran.
Roghayeh Gholampour Goli, Department of Physical Education, Babol Branch, Islamic Azad University
s.gholampor876@gmail.com; Master of bachelor, Department of Physical Education, Babol Branch, Islamic Azad University; Babol, Iran.
Leonid Podrigalo, Kharkiv State Academy of Physical Culture
l.podrigalo@mail.ru; Department of Medical Science, Kharkiv State Academy of Physical Culture; Kharkiv, Ukraine.

References

1. Andrew SC, Brandon W, David M, Warner L, Diana G, Laurel T, Christina T, Julie G. Attitudes and Moods among Athletic Trainers Following Suspension of 2020 Athletic Season Due to COVID-19. Res Inves Sports Med, 2020;6(3):523–527.
https://doi.org/10.31031/RISM.2020.06.000649

2. ESPN. Coronavirus cancellations and reactions in sport. [Internet]. 2020. [updated 2020 Jun 15; cited 2020 Nov 5]. Available from: https://www.espn.com/espn/story/_/id/28871525/coronavirus-cancellations-reactions-sports

3. Ke X, Wagner C. Global pandemic compels sport to move to esports: understanding from brand extension perspective. Managing Sport and Leisure, 2020;1–6.
https://doi.org/10.1080/23750472.2020.1792801

4. Yin Y, Gao J, Jones BF, Wang D. Coevolution of policy and science during the pandemic. Science, 2021;371(6525):128–130.
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abe3084

5. Mousavi Moghadam SR, Malekian S, Karamshahi M. Investigating the relationship between personality characteristics, self-control, and general health among the students of public and clinical psychology in Islamic Azad University of Ilam. JBRMS. 2016;3(2):20–25.
https://doi.org/10.18869/acadpub.jbrms.3.2.20

6. Forghani Ozrudi MB. The effects of Personality profile and intelligence profile on performance elite taekwondo athletes Expedition to the London Olympics. Int. J. Sport Sci, 2015;2(3):1–7.

7. Navabinejad S. Norm and normal teenage behavior, 4th edition; 1999.

8. Mokhtari P. How to confront stress in sports. Islamic republic of Iran national committee press, Tehran; 1999.

9. Ivanović M, Radovanović M, Budimac Z, Mitrović D, Kurbalija V, Dai W, Zhao W. Emotional intelligence and agents: Survey and possible applications. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Web Intelligence, Mining and Semantics (WIMS14), 2014;1–7.
https://doi.org/10.1145/2611040.2611100

10. Kurtović A. Odnos atribucijskih dimenzija, negativnih životnih događaja i depresivnosti: Provjera modela beznadnosti [Relationship of attributional dimensions, negative life events, and depression: A test of the hopelessness model]. Psihologijske teme, 2007;16(1):159–182. (In Croatian).

11. Kurtović A, Vuković I, Gajić M. The Effect of Locus of Control on University Students' Mental Health: Possible Mediation through Self-Esteem and Coping. The Journal of Psychology, 2018;152(6):341–357.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.2018.1463962

12. Sesar K, Živčić-Bećirević I, Sesar D. Multi-Type Maltreatment in Childhood and Psychological Adjustment in Adolescence:Questionnaire Study among Adolescents in Western Herzegovina Canton. Croatian Medical Journal, 2008;49:243–56.
https://doi.org/10.3325/cmj.2008.2.243

13. Subotić S, Brajša-Žganec A, i Merkaš M. Školski stres i neka obilježja ličnosti kao prediktori suicidalnosti adolescenata [School stress and some personality traits as predictors of adolescent suicidality]. Psihologijske teme, 2008;17(1):111–131. (In Croatian).

14. Adkins DE,Wang V, Dupre ME, Van den Oord EJCG, Elder Jr, GH. Structure and Stress: Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence and Young Adulthood. Social Forces, 2009;88(1):31–80.
https://doi.org/10.1353/sof.0.0238

15. Scott WD, Dearing E, Reynolds WR, Lindsay JE, Baird GL. Hamill S. Cognitive Self-Regulation and Depression: Examining Academic Self-Efficacy and Goal Characteristics in Youth of a Northern Plains Tribe. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 2008;18(2):379–394.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2008.00564.x

16. Alloy LB. The Developmental Origins of Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression: Negative Interpersonal Context Leads to Personal Vulnerability. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2001;25(4):349–351.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005527218169

17. Ge X, Conger RD, Elder GH. The Relation between Puberty and Psychological Distress in Adolescent Boys. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 2001;11(1):49–70.
https://doi.org/10.1111/1532-7795.00003

18. Thompson RJ, Mata J, Jaeggi SM, Buschkuehl M, Gotlib IH, Jonides J. Maladaptive Coping, Adaptive Coping, and Depressive Symptoms: Variations across Age and Depressive State. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 2010;48(6):459–466.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2010.01.007

19. Abela JRZ, Parkinson C, Stolow D, Starrs C. A Test of the Integration of the Hopelessness and Response Styles Theories of Depression in Middle Adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 2009;38(3):354–364.
https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410902851630

20. Huang JP, Xia W, Sun CH, Zhang HY, Wu LJ. Psychological Distress and Its Correlates in Chinese Adolescents. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 2009;43:674–681.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00048670902970817

21. Horwitz AH, Hill RM, King CA. Specific Coping Behaviors in Relation to Adolescent Depression and Suicidal Ideation. Journal of Adolescence, 2010;86(5):1–9.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.10.004

22. Flynn M, Kecmanovic J, Alloy LB. An Examination of Integrated Cognitive-Interpersonal Vulnerability to Depression: The Role of Rumination, Perceived Social Support, and Interpersonal Stress Generation. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2010;34(5):456–466.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-010-9300-8

23. El Morr C, Ritvo P, Ahmad F, Moineddin R, MVC Team. Effectiveness of an 8-Week Web-Based Mindfulness Virtual Community Intervention for University Students on Symptoms of Stress, Anxiety, and Depression: Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Ment Health, 2020;7:e18595.
https://doi.org/10.2196/18595

24. Fawaz M, Samaha A. E‐learning: Depression, anxiety, and stress symptomatology among Lebanese university students during COVID‐19 quarantine. Nursing Forum, 2020:nuf.12521.
https://doi.org/10.1111/nuf.12521

25. Xiao H, Shu W, Li M, Li Z, Tao F, Wu X, et al. Social Distancing among Medical Students during the 2019 Coronavirus Disease Pandemic in China: Disease Awareness, Anxiety Disorder, Depression, and Behavioral Activities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17:5047.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145047

26. Meza EIA, Hall-Lopez JA. Physical activity in university student athletes, prior and in confinement due to pandemic associated with COVID-19. Retos-Nuevas Tendencias En Educacion Fisica Deporte Y Recreacion. 2021(39):572–575.

27. Rahman MdE, Islam MdS, Bishwas MdS, Moonajilin MstS, Gozal D. Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors in the Bangladeshi population during the COVID-19 pandemic: An online cross-sectional survey. Heliyon, 2020;6:e05392.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05392

28. Asenov A. Analysis of an online taekwondo competition. Pedagogika. 2020;92(7):97–105.

29. Dimitrov I. Online training of university students as taekwondo referees during a coronavirus pandemic. Pedagogika. 2020;92(7):106–116.

30. Mihaylov DR. Interactive online taekwondo training and education in the times of COVID-19. Pedagogika. 2020;92(7):117–124.

31. Herrera-Valenzuela T, Valdes-Badilla P, Franchini E. High-intensity interval training recommendations for combat sports athletes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Revista De Artes Marciales Asiaticas. 2020;15(1):1–3.
https://doi.org/10.18002/rama.v15i1.6230

32. Hollon SD, Kendall PC. Cognitive Self-Statements in Depression: Development of an Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1980;4(4):383–395.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01178214

33. Proroković A, Zelić S. Upitnik automatskih misli – UPAM [Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire]. In: Proroković A, Lacković K, Grgin V. Ćubela Adorić, Penezić Z. (ed.), Zbirka psihologijskih skala i upitnika, 2002. P. 79–84. (In Croatian).

34. Ivanov L, Penezić Z. Skala opće samoefikasnosti [General Self-Efficacy Scale]. In: Lacković Grgin K, Proroković A, Ćubela V, Penezić Z. (ed.), Zbirka psihologijskih skala i upitnika. 1998. P.156. (In Croatian).

35. Hudek-Knežević J. Obilježja ličnosti, biološki spol i percepcija socijalne podrške kao korelati suočavanja sa stresnim situacijama [Coping with stress in relation to characteristics of personality, gender and social support]. Godišnjak Zavoda za Psihologiju, 1994;3:47–56. (In Croatian).

36. Vulić-Prtorić A. Priručnik za skalu depresivnosti za djecu i adolescente SDD [Depression Scale Manual for Children and Adolescents SDD]. Jastrebarsko: Naklada Slap; 2003. (In Croatian).

37. Baron RM, Kenny DA. The Moderator - Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychology Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1986;51(6):1173–1182.
https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.51.6.1173

38. Anyan F, Hjemdal O, Ernstsen L, Havnen A. Change in Physical Activity During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Lockdown in Norway: The Buffering Effect of Resilience on Mental Health. Front Psychol, 2020;11:598481.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.598481

39. Frazier PA, Tix AP, Barron KE. Testing Moderator and Mediator Effects in Counseling Psychology Research. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2004;51(1):115–134.
https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.51.1.115

40. Rose DT, Abramson LY. Developmental predictors of depressive cognitive style: Research and theory. In: Cicchetti D, Toth SL. (Ed.), Rochester symposium on developmental psychopathology. Developmental perspectives on depression. University of Rochester Press; 1992;4:323–349.

41. Garber J, Flynn C. Predictors of Depressive Cognitions in Young Adolescents. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2001;25(4):353–376.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005530402239

42. Parker G, Gladstone G, Mitchell P, Wilhelm K, Roy K. Do Early Adverse Experiences Establish a Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression on Exposure to Mirroring Life Events in Adulthood? Journal of Affective Disorders, 2000;57(1–3): 209–215.
https://doi.org/10.1016/s0165-0327(99)00091-9

43. Wadsworth ME, Raviv T, Compas BE, Connor Smith JK. Parent and Adolescent Responses to Poverty-Related Stress: Test of Mediated and Moderated Coping Models. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 2005;14(2):283–298.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-005-5056-2

44. Podrigalo L, Cynarski WJ, Rovnaya O, Volodchenko O, Halashko O, Volodchenko J. Studying of physical development features of elite athletes of combat sports by means of special indexes. Ido Movement for Culture, 2019;19(1):51–57.
https://doi.org/10.14589/ido.19.1.5

45. Romanenko V, Podrigalo L, Cynarski WJ, Rovnaya O, Korobeynikova L, Goloha V, et al. A comparative analysis of the short-term memory of martial arts' athletes of different level of sportsmanship. Ido Movement for Culture, 2020;20(3):18–24.
https://doi.org/10.14589/ido.20.3.3

46. Volodchenko OA, Podrigalo LV, Iermakov SS, Żychowska MT, Jagiełło W. The Usefulness of Performing Biochemical Tests in the Saliva of Kickboxing Athletes in the Dynamic of Training. BioMed Research International, 2019;2019:1–7.
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2014347
Published
2021-02-26
How to Cite
1.
Forghani Ozrudi M, Faghanpour S, Gholampour Goli R, Podrigalo L. Effect of depression among taekwondo students and its relationship with negative events due to COVID-19. Physical education of students. 2021;25(1):10-9. https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2021.0102
Section
Articles