Do e-athletes move? A study on physical activity level and body composition in elite e-sports

Keywords: e-sports, physical activity, body composition


Background and Study Aim. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of e-sports on physical activity level and body composition. Material and Methods.  The athletes who participated in the study were 19.92± 2.21 years of age, 1.73±0.04 m body height and 78.35±6.52 kg body weight. A total of 137 athletes participated in the study, including 27 from Turkey, 47 from South Korea and 63 from the United States (USA). The data was collected by e-mail from the sports clubs. The athletes who representing their country in international competitions involved in the study. The data obtained were evaluated in the SPSS program. Results.  According to the findings of the study, the body mass index (BMI) of e-sport athletes is 26.03±1.85, the number of physical activity steps is 6646±3400 and the daily e-sport hours are 9.34±1.12. The BMI was determined as USA 26.12, South Korea 26.02 and Turkey 25.84 respectively. The number of physical activity steps was identified as 5255 steps in the US, 7785 steps in South Korea and 7909 steps in Turkey. The daily e-sports hour is set at US 9.63 hours, Turkey 9.29 hours and South Korea 8.97 hours. In comparison of country-based athletes, there was a significant difference between physical activity level and daily e-sports hours at p<0.05. The value of BMI is not different. Although it is not statistically related to the physical activity level and BMI. There was no statistically significant relationship between daily e-sports hours and BMI and physical activity step counts. However, as the time of e-sports increases, BMI increases and the number of physical activity steps decreases. Conclusions.  As a result it is seen in the findings of the research that athletes dealing with e-sports are included in the fat group as a body composition and their daily physical activity steps are low. In addition, according to the results of the research, e-sports are thought to have negative effects on physical health. Thanks to the physical activity programs to be applied to these athletes, it is thought that their body composition and physical activity levels can be improved.


Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 1333 | PDF Downloads: 897 |

Author Biographies

Akan Bayrakdar, Bingöl University; School of Physical Education and Sport, Bingöl University; Bingöl, Turkey.
Yağmur Yıldız, Aksaray University; Specialization Coordinator in Sports and Health, Aksaray University; Aksaray, Turkey.
Işık Bayraktar, Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University; Faculty of Sport Sciences, Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University; Alanya, Turkey.


1. Kocadağ M. Electronic sports career and training. Journal of Trends in Eastern Anatolia Social Sciences, 2007; 1(2): 49–63.

2. Dorsey P. ‘League of Legends’ ratings top NBA finals. World Series clinchers; 2014.

3. Global Games Market Will Grow 9.4% to $91.5Bn in 2015. [Internet]. 2015. [updated 2015; cited 2019 Nov 23]. Available from:,reach%20%24107Bn%20in%202017

4. Jenny SE, Manning RD, Keiper MC, Olrich TW. Virtual(ly) Athletes: Where eSports Fit Within the Definition of “Sport.” Quest ,2017;69:1–18.

5. Dota 2. The International Dota 2 Champoinships 2016. [Internet]. 2016. [updated 2016; cited 2019 Nov 23]. Available from:

6. Rudolf K, Bickmann P, Froböse I, Tholl C, Wechsler K, Grieben C. Demographics and Health Behavior of Video Game and eSports Players in Germany: The eSports Study 2019. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2020;17:1870.

7. Rayat P. E-sports into the sports movement?: Sports associations and their perceptions of and approaches to future e-sports in their own business. [Thesis]. Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University; 2017.

8. Choi C, Hums M, Bum C-H. Impact of the Family Environment on Juvenile Mental Health: eSports Online Game Addiction and Delinquency. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2018;15:2850.

9. Cunningham GB, Fairley S, Ferkins L, Kerwin S, Lock D, Shaw S, et al. eSport: Construct specifications and implications for sport management. Sport Management Review, 2018;21:1–6.

10. DiFrancisco-Donoghue J, Balentine J, Schmidt G, Zwibel H. Managing the health of the eSport athlete: an integrated health management model. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med, 2019;5:e000467.

11. Griffiths MD. Computer game playing and social skills: a pilot study. Aloma: Revista de Psicologia, Ciències de l'Educació i de l'Esport, 2010;27: 301–310.

12. Khoo A. E-social Networking and eSports. In: More or Less Democracy & New. 2012. P. 258–273.

13. Griffiths MD. The psychosocial impact of professional gambling, professional video gaming & eSports. Casino & Gaming International, 2017; 28; 59–63.

14. Nielsen RKL, Karhulahti V-M. The problematic coexistence of “internet gaming disorder” and esports. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games - FDG ’17, Hyannis. Massachusetts: ACM Press; 2017. P. 1–4.

15. Hallmann K, Giel T. eSports – Competitive sports or recreational activity? Sport Management Review, 2018;21:14–20.

16. Polman R, Trotter M, Poulus D, Borkoles E. eSport: Friend or Foe? In: Göbel S, Garcia-Agundez A, Tregel T, Ma M, Baalsrud Hauge J, Oliveira M, et al., editors. Serious Games, vol. 11243, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2018. P. 3–8.

17. İlhan L. The culture of sedentary lives and the accompanying. Journal of Productivity, 2010; (3): 195–210.

18. Crawford D, Jeffery R, French S. Television viewing, physical inactivity and obesity. Int J Obes, 1999;23:437–40.

19. Bulut S. A social determinants of health, physical activity. Turk Hij Den Biyol Derg, 2013;70:205–14.

20. Çakır B. Healthy Living: Can We Reduce The Health Risks We Encounter In Everyday Life ?. Ankara Medical Journal, 2017; 17(3): 179-188.

21. Katzmarzyk PT, Janssen I. The Economic Costs Associated With Physical Inactivity and Obesity in Canada: An Update. Can J Appl Physiol, 2004;29:90–115.

22. Blair SN, Brodney S. Effects of physical inactivity and obesity on morbidity and mortality: current evidence and research issues. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 1999;31:S646.

23. Cecchini M, Sassi F, Lauer JA, Lee YY, Guajardo-Barron V, Chisholm D. Tackling of unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, and obesity: health effects and cost-effectiveness. The Lancet, 2010;376:1775–84.

24. ten Hacken NHT. Physical Inactivity and Obesity: Relation to Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease? Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, 2009;6:663–7.

25. Rudolf K, Grieben C, Achtzehn S, Froböse I. Stress im eSport–Ein Einblick in Training und Wettkampf. In: eSport conference Professionalisierung einer Subkultur. 2010. P. 100–105.

26. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Growth Charts for the United States: Methods and Development. [Internet]. 2020. [updated 2019; cited 2019 Nov 02]. Available from:

27. Tudor-Locke C, Craig CL, Brown WJ, Clemes SA, De Cocker K, Giles-Corti B, et al. How many steps/day are enough? for adults. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 2011;8:79.

28. Exploratory Data Analysis. The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistic. New York, NY: Springer New York; 2008. P. 192–4.

29. Haynes W. Tukey’s Test. In: Dubitzky W, Wolkenhauer O, Cho K-H, Yokota H, editors. Encyclopedia of Systems Biology, New York, NY: Springer New York; 2013. P. 2303–4.

30. Bailey DP, Hewson DJ, Champion RB, Sayegh SM. Sitting Time and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2019;57:408–16.

31. Biswas A, Oh PI, Faulkner GE, Bajaj RR, Silver MA, Mitchell MS, et al. Sedentary Time and Its Association With Risk for Disease Incidence, Mortality, and Hospitalization in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med, 2015;162:123.

32. Chau JY, Grunseit AC, Chey T, Stamatakis E, Brown WJ, Matthews CE, et al. Daily Sitting Time and All-Cause Mortality: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE, 2013;8:e80000.

33. Rezende LFM, Sá TH, Mielke GI, Viscondi JYK, Rey-López JP, Garcia LMT. All-Cause Mortality Attributable to Sitting Time. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2016;51:253–63.

34. Patterson R, McNamara E, Tainio M, de Sá TH, Smith AD, Sharp SJ, et al. Sedentary behaviour and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality, and incident type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose response meta-analysis. Eur J Epidemiol 2018;33:811–29.

35. Happonen A, Minashkina D. Professionalism in Esports: benefits in skills and health and possible downsides. Lappeenranta; 2019.

36. Mustafaoğlu R, Zirek E, Yasacı Z. Demographic Features, Playing Times and Successes of e-Sports Players. Journal of Addiction, 2018; 19(4): 115–122.

37. Kari T, Karhulahti V-M. Do E-Athletes Move?: A Study on Training and Physical Exercise in Elite E-Sports. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 2016;8:53–66.

38. Funk DC, Pizzo AD, Baker BJ. eSport management: Embracing eSport education and research opportunities. Sport Management Review, 2018;21:7–13.

39. Funk DC, Pizzo AD, Baker BJ. eSport management: Embracing eSport education and research opportunities. Sport Management Review, 2018;21:7–13.

40. Dubbels BR. Exploring the Cognitive, Social, Cultural, and Psychological Aspects of Gaming and Simulations. IGI Global; 2019.

41. Tudor-Locke C, Bassett DR. How Many Steps/Day Are Enough?: Preliminary Pedometer Indices for Public Health. Sports Medicine, 2004;34:1–8.
How to Cite
Bayrakdar A, Yıldız Y, Bayraktar I. Do e-athletes move? A study on physical activity level and body composition in elite e-sports. Physical education of students. 2020;24(5):259-64.