The study of functional asymmetry in students and schoolchildren practicing martial arts

Keywords: functional asymmetry, martial arts, computer program, students, schoolchildren

Abstract

Background and Study Aim. The study of functional asymmetry in students and schoolchildren practicing martial arts using a computer test. Material and Methods. The study involved students and schoolchildren (n = 38) practicing the martial arts (taekwondo, karate). Participants were divided into groups according to the sports’ skill level. The first group included experienced athletes (n = 15, age – 19.00 ± 0.45 years). The second group included beginners (n = 23, age - 9.78 ± 0.65 years). The functional asymmetry was determined using «Reaction SM Dual» software for tablets with iOS. Two visual tests were used. The duration of each test was 100 s. Each test was divided into 5 stages. Each stage lasts 20 s. The first test (simple reaction) – the participant pushes against the circles on the screen with two hands. The second test (differentiated reaction) – the participant pushes against the circles of the same color (out of five possible) on the screen. The following indicators were determined: the number of pushes with the right and left hand (abs); reaction time with the right and left hand (s); duration of pushes with the right and left hand (ms). It was estimated the following indicators: total number of pushes; average reaction time; average duration of pushes. Results are estimated using parametric and nonparametric statistical indicators. Results. The number of pushes in the test, the reaction rate, and the duration of pushes were significantly higher in experienced athletes. It was determined the asymmetry due to the lower duration of pushes with the right hand compared to the left hand in beginners. The asymmetry was not confirmed in experienced athletes. The reaction rate for the left hand significantly increased compared to stage 1 in beginners: at stage 2 (t = -2.41), at stage 3 (t = -2.23), at stage 4 (t = -2.30) and at stage 5 (t = -2.68). This dependency was less expressed for the right hand. It was confirmed the increase of the reaction rate in comparison with stage 1: at stage 3 (t = -2.39), at stage 4 (t = -2.00) and at stage 5 (t = -2.32). The differences in the dynamics of the test were more expressed in experienced athletes. It was determined the decrease in the number of pushes compared to stage 1: stage 2 (t = 2.53), stage 4 (t = 2.89) and stage 5 (t = 2.61). For the right hand, this pattern was more expressed. The decrease in the number of pushes was determined compared with stage 1: stage 2 (t = 2.17), stage 3 (t = 2.07), stage 4 (t = 2.39) and stage 5 (t = 2.94). Experienced athletes have confirmed significant changes in the reaction rate with their left hand compared to stage 1: stage 4 (t = -2.33) and stage 5 (t = -2.06). For the right hand, this pattern was confirmed only for the final stage of the test (t = -2.35). Conclusions. It was confirmed the legitimacy of using a special computer test to study functional asymmetry in students and schoolchildren practicing martial arts. The test division into several stages can significantly increase the information content of the results. The applied battery of indicators provides the necessary information for the analysis of asymmetry. It was determined the best functional condition of experienced athletes compared to beginners. Experienced athletes demonstrate the best ability to mobilize and concentrate on extreme conditions. The dynamics of the test also confirms the asymmetry in athletes with less training experience. Performing a test with a differentiated stimulus confirmed the revealed patterns. The lack of asymmetry in experienced athletes confirms optimal training tactics. The asymmetry in beginners stipulates the correction of training. Used computer test can be recommended for martial arts athletes’ condition monitoring.

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Author Biographies

Vyacheslav V. Romanenko, Kharkov State Academy of Physical Culture
slavaromash@gmail.com; Kharkov State Academy of Physical Culture; Klochkovskaya str. 99, Kharkov, 61022, Ukraine
Olha O. Podrihalo, Kharkov State Academy of Physical Culture
rovnayaolga77@ukr.net; Kharkov State Academy of Physical Culture; Klochkovskaya str. 99, Kharkov, 61022, Ukraine
Leonid V. Podrigalo, Kharkov State Academy of Physical Culture
l.podrigalo@mail.ru; Kharkov State Academy of Physical Culture; Klochkovskaya str. 99, Kharkov, 61022, Ukraine.
Sergii S. Iermakov, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport
sportart@gmail.com; Department of Sport, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport; Kazimierza Górskiego 1, 80-336 Gdańsk, Poland
Zhanna V. Sotnikova-Meleshkina, V. N. Karazin Kharkov National University
zhanna.univer@gmail.com; V. N. Karazin Kharkov National University; 4 Svobody Sq.,Kharkov, 61022, Ukraine
Oksana V. Bobrova, V. N. Karazin KharkovNational University
parryprof1@gmail.com; V. N. Karazin KharkovNational University; 4 Svobody Sq.,Kharkov, 61022, Ukraine

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Published
2020-06-30
How to Cite
1.
Romanenko V, Podrihalo O, Podrigalo L, Iermakov S, Sotnikova-Meleshkina Z, Bobrova O. The study of functional asymmetry in students and schoolchildren practicing martial arts. Physical education of students. 2020;24(3):154-61. https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2020.0305
Section
Articles

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