Early Online

The articles shown below have been posted as Early Online Release articles. These articles have been peer reviewed, copyedited, and reviewed by the authors. Additional changes or corrections may appear in these articles when they are published in a future issue of the “Physical Education of Students". When articles are published in an issue, it will be removed from this page and appear in that issue’s table of contents.

Articles

  • The relationship between leisure satisfaction, physical activity level and healthy life-style behaviors of sport science students during the COVID-19 pandemic
    Ali Özkan | Bartin University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2859-2824
    Fatih Yaşartürk | Bartın University | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4934-101X
    Gürkan Elçi | Bartin University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8889-9692
    Early Online 2021-08-14 | pages: 257 - 264 | https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2021.0501
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between leisure satisfaction, physical activity levels and healthy life-style behaviors of sport science students during the COVID-19 pandemic in distance education.
    Material and Methods. In total, 218 sport science students participated in this study voluntarily. The short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered for the determination of physical activity level of distance education students. Their physical activity levels were categorized as inactive, minimally active, and physically active by using Metabolic Equivalent Term method. Health-promoting Life-style Profile Questionnaire was used with self-actualization, health responsibility, exercise, nutrition, interpersonal support, and stress management subscales. The leisure satisfaction scale was administered for the determination of leisure satisfaction.
    Results. Results of Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Analyses indicated that there were positive significant correlations between “HLSB” and three sub-dimensions of “IPAQ” (MIA, VIA and Total). It was found positive correlation between “HLSB” and all sub-dimensions of “LSS” (Psychological, Educational, Social, Relaxation, Physiological and Aesthetical). Also, a significant positive correlation was found between four sub-dimensions of “LSS” (Social, Relaxation, Physiological and Aesthetical) and one sub-dimensions of “IPAQ” (W). It was observed that one sub-dimensions of “LSS” which is “Aesthetical”, and a positive correlation between all sub-dimensions of “IPAQ” was found.
    Conclusions. The findings of the present study indicated that healthy life-style behaviors were indicators of LSS and IPAQ and also aesthetical was found between IPAQ of sport science students.
  • Examination of nutritional knowledge levels of physical education and sports stakeholders in gender variable: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Şakir Tüfekçi | Inonu University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7815-5710
    Hulusi Böke | Ministry of Education, Yaşar Öncan Secondary School | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5728-680X
    Oğuzhan Altungül | Elazığ University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2572-7324
    Early Online 2021-10-30 | pages: 299 - 306 | https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2021.0506
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. Nutrition knowledge is related to dietary behavior in athletes. Therefore, it may also have an impact on performance. Athletes with better nutrition knowledge have more healthy dietary habits. This meta-analysis study focused on the impact of gender on the nutrition knowledge levels of physical education and sports stakeholders.
    Material and Methods. This study adopted a meta-analysis research design, which is used to analyze, synthesize, and interpret quantitative findings from an array of studies through advanced statistical techniques. A meta-analysis involves combining the findings of studies carried out in different places and at different times on the same topic and obtaining a quantitatively accurate result based on a large sample. This study employed the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA, v. 2.0) to determine effect sizes and the variance of each study and to compare groups. Cohen’s kappa intercoder reliability and outlier tests were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).
    Results. We focused on 31 studies with a total sample size of 4575. We calculated the effect size of each study. We found a statistically significant effect size in favor of female stakeholders (d = 0.15; 95% CI -0.22 -0.09) in the fixed effects model, which was a weak result according to Cohen’s classification. We determined a statistically significant effect size in favor of female stakeholders (d = 0.15; 95% CI -0.29-0.01) in the random-effects model. These results suggest a slight difference in nutrition knowledge levels between male and female physical education and sports stakeholders. This result can pave the way for further research.
    Conclusions. It is understood from the physical education and sports stakeholders that there is a weak difference in the nutritional knowledge levels of women compared to men. It is thought that people who study on sports nutrition and nutrition programs will benefit from the present finding. In addition, it is estimated that the researches to be carried out on the relevant subject will take the current study as a reference.
  • Electromyographic responses to Nordic curl and prone leg curl exercises in football players
    Murat Çilli | Sakarya University of Applied Sciences | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9027-363X
    Merve N. Yasar | Sakarya University of Applied Sciences | http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1334-4630
    Onur Çakir | Sakarya University of Applied Sciences | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7625-5067
    Early Online 2021-10-30 | pages: 288 - 298 | https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2021.0505
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. The aim of this study is to examine the electromyographic responses to Nordic curl and prone leg curl exercises, having two different mechanics.
    Material and Methods. The athletes performed the prone leg curl and Nordic curl exercises in random order, 6 repetitions each. Electromyographic data of semimemranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris and rectus femoris muscles were recorded by 8-channel electromyography in order to examine the muscle responses to exercises. Total duration of exercise, cumulative integrated electromyographic values and muscle activation rates in 5 different intensity zones determined according to MVC% values have been compared.
    Results. Prone leg curl exercise occurred in less time than Nordic curl exercise. According to the cumulative integrated electromyography data results, all muscles showed similar muscle activation in both exercises. Comparing the muscle activation rates in the five intensity zones, more muscle activity was observed for Nordic curl exercise in the first intensity zone, while prone leg curl exercise was more active in the third and fourth zones. During the prone leg curl exercise, the muscle activation rate of the dominant leg is higher in the first intensity zone, whereas the non-dominant leg in the fourth intensity zone has a higher muscle activation. During the Nordic curl exercise, the muscle activation rates of the dominant leg in the first and fifth intensity zones are higher, whereas the nondominant leg in the fourth intensity zone is higher.
    Conclusions. Prone leg curl exercises can be preferred in order to stimulate high muscle activation in a short time. Comparing the two exercises there was no significant difference in muscle activity in dominant and nondominant legs.
  • Determination of flexibility and mobility levels for female physical education students and motor asymmetry analysis
    Milaim Berisha | Istanbul Gelisim University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0353-7247
    Early Online 2021-10-30 | pages: 272 - 279 | https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2021.0503
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. The aim of the study is the determination of flexibility and mobility levels (norm values) for female physical education students and analyses of the motor asymmetry.
    Material and Methods. In the study, 10 female physical education and sport students whose mean body weight was 59.3 kg and body height were 167.7 centimeters were included. Flexibility and mobility performance was measured by using tests such as a Forward-Backward Split (FBS0), Leg Raise forward (LRF0), Leg Raise Sideward (LRS0), Side Spit (SS0), Arm-Trunk Angle (AT0), Seat and reach hip angle degree (SRHA0). Data analysis in the study was made by using the IBM SPSS statistics 26 program. To handle the results of the study, the Independent-samples T-test and percentile(s) statistics were used. Norm values were given in four categories (20th, 40th, 60th, 80th) and middle fifty (50th). Calculation of the angle degrees was made by using the Kinovea-0.9.4-x64.exe program.
    Results. The findings have shown that the forward-backward split and leg raise forward angle degree when the right leg was ahead is significantly higher (better flexibility) than the forward-backward split and leg raise forward angle degree when the left leg was ahead (p<0.05). However, differences in the leg raise sideward angle degree in the right and left leg were not statistically significant (p>0.05).
    Conclusions. The study determined the level (norm values) of flexibility and mobility of female physical education students. The right leg flexibility and mobility level resulted to be significantly higher in comparison to the left leg.
  • Association of body image with physical activity, sleep, meal and smoking in obese male
    Rakesh Tomar | King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3107-0867
    Varghese C Antony | King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9571-9928
    Early Online 2021-10-30 | pages: 280 - 287 | https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2021.0504
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. Body image is a multidimensional construct that involves mental representations of the body, feelings, cognitions, and behaviors. The objective was to compare body image among different categories of obesity, investigate the relationship between obesity and body image, and examine the association of physical activity, meal habits, sleep, and smoking with body image.
    Material and Methods. Fifty-five undergraduate students Mean age 19.7±0.90 were divide into three obese categories: Obese Class I (30 < 35 kg/m2), Obese Class II (35 < 40 kg/m2) and Obese Class III (≥40.00 kg/m2). Body Image measured through (MBSRQ-AS).
    Results. ANOVA revealed no significant difference among BMI categories on body image global score F (2,52) = 0.074, p = 0.928. Pearson product-moment correlation could not establish significant relationship between body image and BMI (r= -0.00, n=55, p= 0.998). We found a strong association of smoking with body image X(1) = 6.909, p=0.009. However, the statistical analysis of data could not establish any significant association of PA X(1) = 0.044, p=0.978; sleep X(1) = 2.403, p=0.121; and number of meals X(1) = 0.654, p=0.721; with body image among obese individuals.
    Conclusions. The university students exhibited low body image. Higher scores on Self-Classified Weight describe how individuals perceive their weight and how they believe others perceive it. The low scores on Appearance Evaluation determine unhappiness with their physical appearance. Interestingly, most students are getting sufficient sleep, and a high percentage of the students’ population is not smoking. The university needs to encourage physical activity and healthy eating behavior.
  • Morphofunctional characteristics of single combats athletes as factors of success
    Leonid V. Podrigalo | Kharkiv State Academy of Physical Culture | http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7893-524X
    Olha O. Podrihalo | Kharkiv State Academy of Physical Culture | http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1519-5632
    Wladyslaw Jagiello | Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport | http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7417-4749
    Olexandr V. Podavalenko | Kharkiv State Academy of Physical Culture | http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9143-3351
    Irina P. Masliak | Kharkiv State Academy of Physical Culture | http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1306-0849
    Yuri M. Tropin | Kharkiv State Academy of Physical Culture | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6691-2470
    Margarita A. Mameshina | Kharkiv State Academy of Physical Culture | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7397-3805
    Volodymyr О. Galimskyi | Flight Academy National Aviation University | http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6953-5244
    Inna І. Galimska | Flight Academy National Aviation University | http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0877-3991
    Early Online 2021-10-30 | pages: 265 - 271 | https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2021.0502
    Abstract Background and Study Aim.  The aim of the article is a comparative analysis of the morphofunctional characteristics of athletes of various types of martial arts as factors of success.
    Material and Methods. The study participated students involved in martial arts (n = 29; age - 17.53 ± 0.15 years). The first group (group 1 - wrestlers) included judo, sambo, wrestling athletes (n = 12, age - 18.58 ± 0.38 years). The second group (group 2 - athletes of percussion martial arts) included athletes of karate, taekwondo (GTF), taekwondo (WTF), (n = 17; age - 18.12 ± 0.26 years). Determined 46 morphofunctional indicators: length and body weight; chest circumference in a pause, on inhalation and exhalation; length and circumference of the segments of the upper and lower extremities; wrist dynamometry. A goniometric study of the range of motion in the joints of the upper extremities was carried out. The dynamic grip strength was determined by the maximum frequency of hand squeezing in 10 seconds. To characterize the data, the median was determined - the first (25%) and third (75%) quartiles. Differences between groups were assessed using nonparametric criteria of Wilkinson-Mann-Whitney (U) and Rosenbaum (Q).
    Results. Athletes in group 1 had a greater interquartile range compared to athletes in group 1 in the following indicators: body weight; chest circumference in a pause, on inhalation and exhalation; hand dynamometry of the right and left hands; maximum frequency of the hand grip in the impulse mode with the left hand; shoulder width; circumference of the shoulder, forearm, thigh and lower leg. Athletes of percussion martial arts were characterized by large values of the shin length. The amplitude of abduction and adduction in the right wrist joint, the amplitude of abduction in the left wrist joint was greater in the wrestlers. Athletes of percussion martial arts had a large amount of extension of the left wrist joint, flexion of the right elbow joint, extension and abduction of the right shoulder joint.
    Conclusions. Analysis of morphofunctional indicators of athletes of various types of martial arts confirmed the specific effect of the sport on the body of athletes. The features that are the factors of success are highlighted. For wrestlers, these include hand strength in various modes. It allows to implement quickly and efficiently grip. This is the basis for a successful wrestling technique. Sufficient development of the muscles of the limbs ensures the execution of throws in wrestling. The lengthened calf size contributes to a more effective kick in martial arts. Goniometric features of movements reflect the possibility of high-quality gripping, striking or blocking. The used morphofunctional indicators can be applied to predict the success of athletes in various types of martial arts.