Early Online

The articles shown below have been posted as Early Online Release articles. These articles have been peer reviewed, copyedited, and reviewed by the authors. Additional changes or corrections may appear in these articles when they are published in a future issue of the “Physical Education of Students". When articles are published in an issue, it will be removed from this page and appear in that issue’s table of contents.


  • Do e-athletes move? A study on physical activity level and body composition in elite e-sports
    Akan Bayrakdar | Bingöl University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3217-0253
    Yağmur Yıldız | Aksaray University | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6852-2364
    Işık Bayraktar | Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1001-5348
    Early Online 2020-08-27 | pages: 259 - 264 | https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2020.0501
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of e-sports on physical activity level and body composition.
    Material and Methods.  The athletes who participated in the study were 19.92± 2.21 years of age, 1.73±0.04 m body height and 78.35±6.52 kg body weight. A total of 137 athletes participated in the study, including 27 from Turkey, 47 from South Korea and 63 from the United States (USA). The data was collected by e-mail from the sports clubs. The athletes who representing their country in international competitions involved in the study. The data obtained were evaluated in the SPSS program.
    Results.  According to the findings of the study, the body mass index (BMI) of e-sport athletes is 26.03±1.85, the number of physical activity steps is 6646±3400 and the daily e-sport hours are 9.34±1.12. The BMI was determined as USA 26.12, South Korea 26.02 and Turkey 25.84 respectively. The number of physical activity steps was identified as 5255 steps in the US, 7785 steps in South Korea and 7909 steps in Turkey. The daily e-sports hour is set at US 9.63 hours, Turkey 9.29 hours and South Korea 8.97 hours. In comparison of country-based athletes, there was a significant difference between physical activity level and daily e-sports hours at p<0.05. The value of BMI is not different. Although it is not statistically related to the physical activity level and BMI. There was no statistically significant relationship between daily e-sports hours and BMI and physical activity step counts. However, as the time of e-sports increases, BMI increases and the number of physical activity steps decreases.
    Conclusions.  As a result it is seen in the findings of the research that athletes dealing with e-sports are included in the fat group as a body composition and their daily physical activity steps are low. In addition, according to the results of the research, e-sports are thought to have negative effects on physical health. Thanks to the physical activity programs to be applied to these athletes, it is thought that their body composition and physical activity levels can be improved.
  • Relationships between body composition and anaerobic performance parameters in female handball players
    Mehmet Kale | Eskişehir Technical University | http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1960-2234
    Erkan Akdoğan | Eskişehir Technical University | http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8295-8524
    Early Online 2020-08-27 | pages: 265 - 270 | https://doi.org/10.15561/20755279.2020.002
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate of the relationships between total/segmental body composition and anaerobic performance parameters in female handball players.
    Material and Methods. Voluntary 16 women handball players (age= 19.6±2.6years, body height= 168.0±5.5cm, body weight= 64.7±10.7kg), trained last 3 years, were participated to the study. Twelve of them were students from Faculty of Sports Sciences. All measurement and tests were completed in the week right after Turkish Women Handball 1th League. Total and segmental body composition parameters (body fat percentage, body fat mass, lean body mass, leg fat percentage, leg fat mass, lean leg mass, torso fat percentage, torso fat mass, and lean torso mass) of each player were evaluated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method. Squat jump test for explosive power, countermovement jump test for elastic (reactive) power, and Wingate test for anaerobic power (WAnT AP) and anaerobic capacity (WAnT AC) were used. Relationships of total/segmental body composition parameters with jump and anaerobic power-capacity parameters were analysed with Pearson correlation and the probability level was set to p£0.05.
    Results. As a result of statistical analyses, there were negative relationships (p<0.05) between anaerobic performance parameters (countermovement jump and anaerobic power-capacity) and total/segmental body composition parameters except for lean body mass, lean leg mass, and lean torso mass.
    Conclusions. Total/segmental body composition parameters based on endomorphy had negative effects on explosive power, elastic power, WAnT AP and WAnT AC. It is suggested that coaches should not allow female handball players to rise in ectomorphy for the anaerobic performance loss in the season finale.