Early Access

The articles shown below have been posted as Early Access Release articles. These articles have been peer reviewed, copyedited, and reviewed by the authors. Additional changes or corrections may appear in these articles when they are published in a future issue of the “Physical Education of Students". When articles are published in an issue, it will be removed from this page and appear in that issue’s table of contents.


  • The effect of three different sets method used in resistance training on hypertrophy and maximal strenght changes
    Barbaros Demirtaş | Sakarya University of Applied Sciences | http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4720-7493
    Onat Çetin | Yalova University | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6841-5518
    Ergün Çakır | Van Yüzüncü Yıl University | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5895-5297
    Malik Beyleroğlu | Sakarya University of Applied Sciences | http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2223-0064
    Early Online 2022-11-09 | pages: 270 - 279 | https://doi.org/
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. To compare the effects of three different sets method, which is frequently used in resistance training, on strength and hypertrophy values.
    Materials and Methods. Thirty-three young male athletes with similar daily activities and nutrient intakes at the Fitlife fitness center in Sakarya were included in the study. Participants were randomly divided into three different groups as Modified German Volume Training (MGVT) (n=11, 21.5 ± 2.4 years), Super Set (SS) (n=11, 22.4 ± 2.9) and Giant Set (GS) (n=11, 23.0 ± 4.3 years). The study was started with a total of thirty-three people, but two participants in the Giant set group were excluded from the measurements because they left the study due to personal reasons. Strength, muscle thickness and cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements were made in the upper extremity muscles before and after the six-week training period.   
    Results. After six weeks of training, significant increases were observed in the cross-sectional area and thickness (p<0.05) of pectoralis major, deltoid, and latissimus dorsi muscle groups in all three groups, and in the strength parameter (p<0.05) in bench press, barbell row and shoulder press exercises. There was no difference in strength, muscle cross-sectional area and thickness parameters between the groups (p>0,05).  
    Conclusions. Modified German Volume Training (MGVT), Super Set (SS) and Giant Set (GS) methods reveal that there is no difference between the set methods in the 1 Repetition Maximum (1RM) strength and hypertrophy development of young male individuals who do not have a history of resistance exercise but have completed the adaptation period, and that there is an improvement in all set methods.
  • Investigation of Different Training Methods Integrated into Soccer Training on Body Composition and Athletic Performance
    Mustafa Türkmen | Mardin Artuklu University | http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3152-9495
    Harun Genç | Bingöl University | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1371-7468
    Ali E. Ciğerci | Kastamonu University | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3143-5982
    Early Online 2022-11-25 | pages: 288 - 295 | https://doi.org/
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of 8-week core and plyometric training on body composition and athletic performance in young male soccer players.
    Material and Methods. 24 young male soccer players participated in the study voluntarily. The subjects were randomly divided into three separate groups: Core training group (CTG), plyometric training group (PTG) and control group (CG). In addition to soccer training two days a week for 8 weeks, the training was applied to the subjects according to the training programs determined. Physical and performance measurements were made 8 weeks before and after the study. Subject's measurements were analyzed in the SPSS 22 program.
    Results. The largest percentage and significant difference in agility, speed, vertical jump and plyometric jump parameters was obtained in PTG, while the largest percentage and significant difference in horizontal jump parameters was obtained in CTG. While no difference was found in speed and agility performance in CTG; there are significant differences in jump performance but these differences are lower than the other experimental groups in terms of percentage difference. On the other hand in body composition, a significant change was observed only in the height parameter in PTG.
    Conclusions. If a faster improvement is desired in the determined athletic performance parameters in a period of eight weeks in soccer, it may be recommended to prefer core and plyometric trainings in addition to branch training.
    Keywords: Soccer, core, plyometrics, body composition, athletic performance
  • Comparison of Physical Performance Profiles in Freestyle and Greco-Romen Wrestlers
    Gokhan Deliceoğlu | Gazi University | https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8650-3538
    Erkan Tortu | Trabzon University | https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2816-9994
    Selman Kaya | Yalova University | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2185-6436
    Early Online 2022-11-25 | pages: 280 - 287 | https://doi.org/
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. This study aimed to examine the differences between a range of performance parameters in -Greco-Roman and Freestyle wrestlers. The study group consisted of 60 young wrestlers, of which 30 were Greco-Roman, and 30 were freestyle.
    Material and Methods. The parameters analysed in the study included aerobic endurance, lower and upper extremity anaerobic power and capacity, postural sway, change of direction, sprint (5m-10m-20m-30m), and visual reaction. After calculating mean and standard deviation values with descriptive statistical methods, the conformity of all variables to normal distribution was checked with the Shapiro-Wilk Test. Differences between freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestlers were determined by t-test for independent samples. The statistical significance level was accepted as p<0.05.
    Results. Aerobic endurance, lower and upper extremity anaerobic power and capacity, postural sway (Right Foot Anterior-Posterior, Left Foot Total, Left Anterior-Posterior, Left Foot Medial-Lateral), change of direction, 5m and 10m sprint values, and visual reaction values of Greco-Roman and Freestyle wrestlers were found similar (p>0.05). In contrast, a significant difference (p<0.05) was seen in 20m and 30m sprints, double foot total, anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, right foot total, and right foot medial-lateral postural sway values
    Conclusions. Greco-Roman and freestyle wrestlers can be said to show similar performance values despite the different wrestling techniques and training methods they use.
  • Virtual Physical Education: Google Meet as an alternative platform for learning skill-based concepts
    Joseph Lobo | City College of Angeles | https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2553-467X
    Early Online 2022-11-25 | pages: 296 - 307 | https://doi.org/
    Abstract Background and Study Aim. Google Meet has been the most highly sought videoconferencing platform utilized by various educational institutions worldwide to facilitate synchronous classes. The said videoconferencing platform is highly efficient based on previously published scholarly works. To further assess these claims in the current study’s situation, this paper is designed to explore the factors linked with students’ acceptance and observation of Google Meet as an alternative educational platform to learn concepts in various Physical Education courses which are skill-based by adopting the Technology Acceptance Model.
    Material and Methods. The selected respondents were composed of 2nd-4th year undergraduate students taking Bachelor of Physical Education at City College of Angeles, located in the City of Angeles, Philippines. The respondents for the study were identified by using the purposive sampling technique. From the 467 entire populaces, 250 students answered the online survey, and all responses were accepted after data cleaning. The Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling or PLS-SEM through SmartPLS4 was used to explore the factors affecting students’ acceptance of Google Classroom as an alternative platform to learning skill-based concepts in various Physical Education courses. Additionally, outer loadings and the average variance extracted (AVE) were scrutinized and the Fornell-Larcker criterion, cross-loadings, and HTMT were assessed to establish convergent and discriminant validity. Also, a full collinearity assessment on the outer model was performed to determine if the model is free from Common Method Bias. Meanwhile, PLS Predict was utilized to determine the model’s predicting validity and power. Lastly, the structural model was evaluated through path coefficients and the coefficient of determination (R2).
    Results. After obtaining data from the samples (N=250) of Bachelor of Physical Education students (Female= 42.0% and Male= 58.0%), the results displayed that: perceived ease of use is positively and significantly associated with and triggers perceived usefulness; perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness are significantly linked with and leverages students’ behavioral intention to use; and, behavioral intention to use is positively interrelated with and affects the actual use of the videoconferencing platform.
    Conclusions. The findings of this study would be used by the Physical Education Department and the college administration to examining further if the said videoconferencing platform may continuously be used in all skill-based courses in PE since the current setting of the investigation is still in a full-online learning modality. Proposals concerning the students, teachers, and future research directions are also presented.