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Sex-and sport related differences in the personality traits students in volleyball, basketball and judo athletes
AbstractBackground and Study Aim. Psychology is a very important field of knowledge in every area of human life, and personality and temperament have a large impact on the quality of human life, including mental and physical health, and indirectly on the results achieved in elite sport. The purpose of the study was to verify the assumption that there are differences in the psychological profile of professional sportsman students depending on the gender and type of sports discipline.
Material and methods. The research covered athletes of both sexes belonging to academic sports clubs practicing volleyball, basketball and judo. The size of each of the six groups was 24 people. Standardized psychological tests were used to determine the levels of selected personality and temperamental traits: trait anxiety, neuroticism, extraversion, briskness, perseveration, sensory sensitivity, emotional reactivity, endurance, activity, and six components of aggressiveness: physical aggressiveness, verbal aggressiveness, indirect aggressiveness, negativism, suspiciousness, resentment, irritability, overall and guilty sense. Two-way analysis of variance (sex * sport) was used to assess the differences between the groups.
Results. Women showed higher trait anxiety, extraversion, perseveration, emotional reactivity results and lower physical aggressiveness levels compared to men. Basketball practitioners had the lowest levels of aggressiveness components, and the highest levels of briskness.
Conclusions. The results suggest that the psychological profile of women participating in competitive sports may account for a higher emotional cost than men in terms of competition and failure. This fact should be taken into account by the coaches of female sports teams. The differences between sports may be due to the different structure of the task.
Effect of training on the development of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia in volleyball players
AbstractBackground and Study Aim. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of volleyball training on the development of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia during incremental exercise in male competitive volleyball players.
Material and Methods. Eight male amateur volleyball players (age 21±1.3 years) participated in a 6-week volleyball training program three times a week in the pre-season preparatory period. Before and after the training period, all players performed an incremental treadmill test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) was continuously measured using a pulse oximeter during the test. Maximal values of minute ventilation (VEmax), respiratory exchange ratio (RERmax), ventilatory equivalent for oxygen (VE/VO2) and carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2) were determined. Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) was defined as a SaO2 decreased by at least 4% (ΔSaO2≤ −4%) from resting level.
Results. All the players exhibited exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia before (ΔSaO2= –8.8±3.3%) and after (ΔSaO2= –8.31.5%) the training period. SaO2 was significantly decreased from 97.6±1% at rest to 88.7±2.7% at exhaustion before the training period, and from 97.2±1.1% at rest to 88.8±2.1% at exhaustion after training period (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in resting and lowest SaO2 values by comparison between the before and after training (p > 0.05). There were no significant changes in VO2max, VEmax, RERmax, VE/VO2 and VE/VCO2 after training period (p > 0.05).
Conclusions. The results of this study showed that volleyball players with a history of anaerobic training may exhibit EIAH, but that 6-week volleyball training has no effect on the degree of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia.