Investigation of Ego and Task Orientation among International Wrestling Referees

Investigation of Ego and Task Orientation among International Wrestling Referees

Authors Barbas I.
Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Democritus University of Thrace
Vasilissis Sofias 12, Xanthi 67100, Greece

Bebetsos E.
Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Democritus University of Thrace
Vasilissis Sofias 12, Xanthi 67100, Greece

Christos K.
Department of Science Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Athens
30, Panepistimiou Str., 10679, Panepistimio, Athens, Greece

Curby D.
USA Wrestling Sport Science Committee
1719 W. 60th St La Grange, Illinois, 60525, USA

Mirzaei B.
Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Guilan
Khalij Fars highway, 5th kilo meter of Ghazvin road, Postal Code 4199613776, Rasht, Iran

Abstract Aim: study was to investigate any possible effect(s) of experiences from active membership and participation in task or ego orientations among referees in the sport of wrestling. Material: The sample consisted of 213 international referees from 30 countries (Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria, France, Italy, Germany, Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, Russia, Poland, Hungary, U.S.A, Ukraine, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Egypt, Canada, Georgia, Croatia, Uzbekistan, Norway, Cuba, Belarus, & Tunisia). Their age ranged from 26 to 60 yrs. old ( M =43, SD =8.6). During the procedure, the participants were asked to fill a specific questionnaire, the «Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire» (Duda & Nicholls, 1992). Results: Results showed that the referees from elite wrestling level’ countries (Russia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, U.S.A., Korea, Japan, Kazakhstan, & Cuba) are more task oriented than those from the non-elite wrestling level’ countries. Researchers believe that this occurred because referees from non-elite wrestling level’ countries might have less game-sport experience and more specifically in high level games. At the same time, the Olympic experience referees were more task oriented than the non-Olympic experienced. Conclusion: Referee’s decisions are an important issue in the sport milieu. The investigations in decision-making by referees and factors that affect it are rather scarce and research should focus on such topics. Improvement of decision-making by referees, would lead to safer and better performance. Thus, better understanding of referees’ behavior, through identification and operationalization of the factors affecting it, might lead to more effective selection, training and performance.
Key words task orientations; referees; decision-making; wrestling;

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Pages 49-54
Volume 6
Year 2016
doi: 10.15561/20755279.2016.0606
Title of Journal
ISSN 2308-7250
English ed.Online
Physical Education of Students
Article PDF, full text
Journal HTML, Contents
Bibliography Barbas I., Bebetsos E., Christos K., Curby D., Mirzaei B., Investigation of Ego and Task Orientation among International Wrestling Referees. Physical Education of Students, 2016;6:49-54. doi:10.15561/20755279.2016.0606
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